How to format your references using the Behaviour Research and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour Research and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leggett, A. J. (2005). The quantum measurement problem. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5711), 871–872.
A journal article with 2 authors
Day, J., & Beamish, J. (2007). Low-temperature shear modulus changes in solid 4He and connection to supersolidity. Nature, 450(7171), 853–856.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, X., Wang, Y., & Li, M. (2014). Selecting water-alcohol mixed solvent for synthesis of polydopamine nano-spheres using solubility parameter. Scientific Reports, 4, 6070.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, H., Jeffrey, P. D., Miller, J., Kinnucan, E., Sun, Y., Thoma, N. H., Zheng, N., Chen, P.-L., Lee, W.-H., & Pavletich, N. P. (2002). BRCA2 function in DNA binding and recombination from a BRCA2-DSS1-ssDNA structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5588), 1837–1848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Assing, D., & Calé, S. (2013). Mobile Access Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lowenthal, F., & Lefebvre, L. (Eds.). (2014). Language and Recursion. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Petrov, B. P. (2007). Amphibians and Reptiles of Bulgaria: Fauna, Vertical Distribution, Zoogeography, and Conservation. In V. Fet & A. Popov (Eds.), Biogeography and Ecology of Bulgaria (pp. 85–107). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour Research and Therapy.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, May 2). A Scientist Explains Why Your Cat Is So Weird. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Transportation Safety: Opportunities for Enhancing Safety Across Modes (T-RCED-94-120). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norton, D. A. (2013). O’Connor’s agent casual theory of free will: An evaluation [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, December 1). For New Court, Abortion Case Takes Old Path. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leggett, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Day & Beamish, 2007; Leggett, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Day & Beamish, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Jiang et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour Research and Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7967
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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