How to format your references using the Behaviour Research and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour Research and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weeks, E. R. (2012). Materials science. Melting colloidal crystals from the inside out. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6103), 55–56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Modlin, R. L., & Bloom, B. R. (2001). Immunology. Chip shots--will functional genomics get functional? Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5543), 799–801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Falck, J., Coates, J., & Jackson, S. P. (2005). Conserved modes of recruitment of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs to sites of DNA damage. Nature, 434(7033), 605–611.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hay, S. I., Cox, J., Rogers, D. J., Randolph, S. E., Stern, D. I., Shanks, G. D., Myers, M. F., & Snow, R. W. (2002). Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African highlands. Nature, 415(6874), 905–909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau, D., Fatu, A., & Souchet, D. (2014). Internal Combustion Engine Bearings Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yang, G.-Z., Hawkes, D., Rueckert, D., Noble, A., & Taylor, C. (Eds.). (2009). Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2009: 12th International Conference, London, UK, September 20-24, 2009, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 5762). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo, R., & Zhao, G. (2011). Boundaries, Territorial Disputes, and Water Insecurity: Evidence from the Lower Mekong Basin. In R. Guo & C. Freeman (Eds.), Managing Fragile Regions: Method and Application (pp. 81–103). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour Research and Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 17). The Key To Your Health Could Be In Your ZIP Code. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). State Department: Overseas Emergency Security Program Progressing, But Costs Are Increasing (NSIAD-00-83). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray, T. M. (2008). A grounded theory of U.S. Army installation realignment and closure leadership characteristics [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Liptak, A., & Shear, M. D. (2017, October 3). Top Court Puts Gerrymandering On Unclear Path. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weeks, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Modlin & Bloom, 2001; Weeks, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Modlin & Bloom, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Falck et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hay et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour Research and Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7967
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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