How to format your references using the Behaviour Research and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour Research and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hampsey, M. (2012). Molecular biology. A new direction for gene loops. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 624–625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kobayashi, T., & Ganley, A. R. D. (2005). Recombination regulation by transcription-induced cohesin dissociation in rDNA repeats. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5740), 1581–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mourre, V., Villa, P., & Henshilwood, C. S. (2010). Early use of pressure flaking on lithic artifacts at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6004), 659–662.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, B., Tuncer, H. M., Naeem, M., Yang, B., Cole, M. T., Milne, W. I., & Hao, Y. (2014). Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz. Scientific Reports, 4, 4130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, C. L. (2010). Advanced Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scholl, H. J., Janssen, M., Wimmer, M. A., Moe, C. E., & Flak, L. S. (Eds.). (2012). Electronic Government: 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7443). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yakobson, B. I., & Dumitrică, T. (2014). Retracted: Nanomechanics: Physics Between Engineering and Chemistry. In V. Harik (Ed.), Trends in Nanoscale Mechanics: Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, Nanocomposites and Molecular Dynamics (pp. 111–138). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour Research and Therapy.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, October 14). Does The Length Of Your Fingers Really Reveal How Good Your Directional Sense Is? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Commercial Aviation: A Framework for Considering Federal Financial Assistance (GAO-01-1163T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coppock, J. E. (2017). Optical and Magnetic Measurements of a Levitated, Gyroscopically Stabilized Graphene Nanoplatelet [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2013, August 29). A Brooklyn Life On the Big Screen. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hampsey, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hampsey, 2012; Kobayashi & Ganley, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kobayashi & Ganley, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Mourre et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour Research and Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7967
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles