How to format your references using the Behaviour Research and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour Research and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wei, H. (2011). Fundamental limits of “ankylography” due to dimensional deficiency. Nature, 480(7375), E1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Glass, K., & Girvan, M. (2014). Annotation enrichment analysis: an alternative method for evaluating the functional properties of gene sets. Scientific Reports, 4, 4191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen, B., Makley, D. M., & Johnston, J. N. (2010). Umpolung reactivity in amide and peptide synthesis. Nature, 465(7301), 1027–1032.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sridhar, V., Loope, D. B., Swinehart, J. B., Mason, J. A., Oglesby, R. J., & Rowe, C. M. (2006). Large wind shift on the great plains during the medieval warm period. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 345–347.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kampen, T. U. (2010). Low Molecular Weight Organic Semiconductors. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Dasari, A. (2016). Polymer Nanocomposites: Towards Multi-Functionality (Z.-Z. Yu & Y.-W. Mai, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Park, S. K. (2015). Role of Free Radicals in Hearing Loss due to Heavy Metals. In J. Miller, C. G. Le Prell, & L. Rybak (Eds.), Free Radicals in ENT Pathology (pp. 93–109). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour Research and Therapy.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, July 10). Scientists Control Light Wakes For The First Time. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Next Generation Air Transportation System: Progress and Challenges in Planning and Implementing the Transformation of the National Airspace System (GAO-07-649T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, M. (2010). Adult ESL Korean readers’ responses about their reading in L1 Korean and L2 English [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. (2016, October 7). MF Global’s Fall May Cost Corzine About $5 Million. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wei, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Glass & Girvan, 2014; Wei, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Glass & Girvan, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Shen et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sridhar et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour Research and Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7967
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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