How to format your references using the Behaviour Research and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour Research and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robert, F. (2001). Isotope geochemistry. The origin of water on earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5532), 1056–1058.
A journal article with 2 authors
Osborn, T. J., & Briffa, K. R. (2006). The spatial extent of 20th-century warmth in the context of the past 1200 years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5762), 841–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wisniewski, W., Patschger, M., & Rüssel, C. (2013). Viscous fingering and dendritic growth of surface crystallized Sr2TiSi2O8 fresnoite. Scientific Reports, 3, 3558.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mikhael, J., Roth, J., Helden, L., & Bechinger, C. (2008). Archimedean-like tiling on decagonal quasicrystalline surfaces. Nature, 454(7203), 501–504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noar, J. (2014). Interceptive Orthodontics. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pan, Y., Chen, D., Guo, M., Cao, J., & Dongarra, J. (Eds.). (2005). Parallel and Distributed Processing and Applications: Third International Symposium, ISPA 2005, Nanjing, China, November 2-5, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balcar, E., & Lovesey, S. W. (2009). Properties of the 6j-Symbol. In S. W. Lovesey (Ed.), Introduction to the Graphical Theory of Angular Momentum: Case Studies (pp. 41–47). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour Research and Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 18). Pigs Shot In The Head For Science. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Higher Education: Use of New Data Could Help Improve Oversight of Distance Education (No. GAO-12-39). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Castan, J. U. (2010). Congruence x employment tenure: A study with transitioning youth with disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. (2006, June 29). Video Catching Up to Photos When It Comes to Sharing. New York Times, p. C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robert, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Osborn & Briffa, 2006; Robert, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Osborn & Briffa, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Wisniewski, Patschger, & Rüssel, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mikhael, Roth, Helden, & Bechinger, 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour Research and Therapy
AbbreviationBehav. Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0005-7967
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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