How to format your references using the International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baulcombe DC. Molecular biology. Amplified silencing. Science. 2007;315(5809):199-200.
A journal article with 2 authors
Udvardi MK, Scheible W-R. Plant science. GRAS genes and the symbiotic green revolution. Science. 2005;308(5729):1749-1750.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones DL, Brewster RC, Phillips R. Promoter architecture dictates cell-to-cell variability in gene expression. Science. 2014;346(6216):1533-1536.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
van Dam JA, Abdul Aziz H, Alvarez Sierra MA, et al. Long-period astronomical forcing of mammal turnover. Nature. 2006;443(7112):687-691.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kurrer K-E. Geschichte Der Baustatik. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2016.
An edited book
Oberlack M, Peinke J, Talamelli A, Castillo L, Hölling M, eds. Progress in Turbulence and Wind Energy IV: Proceedings of the ITi Conference in Turbulence 2010. Vol 141. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Kilburn BB. Psychiatric Issues in Behavioral Health Disability. In: Warren PA, ed. Behavioral Health Disability: Innovations in Prevention and Management. Springer; 2011:105-131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy.

Blog post
Fang J. Ancient Humans Had A Lot More DNA Than We Do. IFLScience. Published August 11, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation: Bibliography of GAO Documents, January 1985-December 1988. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murdock JM. Lethe and the Twin Bodhisattvas of Forgiveness and Forgetfulness. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Balancing Football and Academic Success. New York Times. December 9, 2009:B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy
ISSN (print)2405-8181

Other styles