How to format your references using the International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broecker WS. Geology. Was the Younger Dryas triggered by a flood? Science. 2006;312(5777):1146-1148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman DK, Banfield JF. Geomicrobiology: how molecular-scale interactions underpin biogeochemical systems. Science. 2002;296(5570):1071-1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regenauer-Lieb K, Weinberg RF, Rosenbaum G. The effect of energy feedbacks on continental strength. Nature. 2006;442(7098):67-70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen G, Seki Y, Kimura H, et al. Diameter control of single-walled carbon nanotube forests from 1.3-3.0 nm by arc plasma deposition. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zirngibl L. Antifungal Azoles. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
MacNeill S, ed. The Eukaryotic Replisome: A Guide to Protein Structure and Function. Vol 62. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Detroux T, Renson L, Masset L, Kerschen G. The Harmonic Balance Method for Bifurcation Analysis of Nonlinear Mechanical Systems. In: Kerschen G, ed. Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 33rd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2015. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:65-82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy.

Blog post
Carpineti A. NASA To Create The Coldest Place In Space. IFLScience. Published March 7, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Space Based Infrared System Could Benefit from Technology Insertion Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fregoso J. Through the pipeline: Degree aspirations of African American and Latino males enrolled in California community colleges. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. No Ruling Means No Change For Fantasy Baseball Leagues. New York Times. June 3, 2008:D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy
ISSN (print)2405-8181

Other styles