How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.J. Prather, Atmospheric science. An environmental experiment with H2?, Science. 302 (2003) 581–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Day, R.G. Morris, Memory consolidation and NMDA receptors: discrepancy between genetic and pharmacological approaches, Science. 293 (2001) 755.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Lambeck, T.M. Esat, E.-K. Potter, Links between climate and sea levels for the past three million years, Nature. 419 (2002) 199–206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.C. Laczny, N. Pinel, N. Vlassis, P. Wilmes, Alignment-free visualization of metagenomic data by nonlinear dimension reduction, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Benitez, J. Davidson, L. Flaxman, Small Schools, Big Ideas, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2009.
An edited book
V. Cottin, J.-F. Cordier, L. Richeldi, eds., Orphan Lung Diseases: A Clinical Guide to Rare Lung Disease, Springer, London, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Jiang, T. Sun, J. Li, Y. Yun, A Novel Real-Time MPEG-2 Video Watermarking Scheme in Copyright Protection, in: H.-J. Kim, S. Katzenbeisser, A.T.S. Ho (Eds.), Digital Watermarking: 7th International Workshop, IWDW 2008, Busan, Korea, November 10-12, 2008. Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 45–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Planck Reveals Most Detailed Map Yet Of The Milky Way’s Magnetic Field, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.S. Mazyck, Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Rhode Island Steps In for City, New York Times. (2011) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)1743-9191
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles