How to format your references using the International Journal of STEM Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of STEM Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickelgren, I. (2000). HYPERTENSION: Mutation Points to Salt Recycling Pathway. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5476), 23b–6b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, D., & Kaner, R. B. (2008). Materials science. Graphene-based materials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1170–1171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryckman, J. D., Jiao, Y., & Weiss, S. M. (2013). Three-dimensional patterning and morphological control of porous nanomaterials by gray-scale direct imprinting. Scientific reports, 3, 1502.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Miki, H., Yamaguchi, H., Suetsugu, S., & Takenawa, T. (2000). IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between Rac and WAVE in the regulation of membrane ruffling. Nature, 408(6813), 732–735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mathian, H., & Sanders, L. (2014). Spatio-Temporal Approaches. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hatfield, D. L., Schweizer, U., Tsuji, P. A., & Gladyshev, V. N. (Eds.). (2016). Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health (4th ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gordon, M., Guo, S., & Hogan, H. B. (2016). Abuse: Elder Abuse. In H. T. Have (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics (pp. 14–21). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of STEM Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 10). The Most Swear-Prone US States Are Also The Most Trustworthy. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Issues That Need to Be Considered in Formulating Strategies to Reduce Aviation Noise (No. T-RCED-90-111). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna, S. G. (2012). Colombian Spanish in North Carolina: The role of language and dialect contact in the formation of a new variety of U.S. Spanish (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tavernise, S. (2015, August 9). A Moscow of Dancing Feet, Under an Iron Fist. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickelgren 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Li and Kaner 2008; Wickelgren 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Kaner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Miki et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of STEM Education
ISSN (online)2196-7822

Other styles