How to format your references using the International Journal of STEM Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of STEM Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paulsson, J. (2004). Summing up the noise in gene networks. Nature, 427(6973), 415–418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finkelstein, A., & Taubman, S. (2015). Health care policy. Randomize evaluations to improve health care delivery. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6223), 720–722.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lonsdorf, E. V., Eberly, L. E., & Pusey, A. E. (2004). Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees. Nature, 428(6984), 715–716.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bradshaw, N., Neher, S. B., Booth, D. S., & Walter, P. (2009). Signal sequences activate the catalytic switch of SRP RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5910), 127–130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2007). Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Instrumented Protective Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Drechsel, P., Qadir, M., & Wichelns, D. (Eds.). (2015). Wastewater: Economic Asset in an Urbanizing World. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Godinot, M. (2007). Primate Origins: A Reappraisal of Historical Data Favoring Tupaiid Affinities. In M. J. Ravosa & M. Dagosto (Eds.), PRIMATE ORIGINS: Adaptations and Evolution (pp. 83–142). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of STEM Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 29). Jaw-Dropping Time-Lapse Of A Supercell. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Federal Research: The Small Business Technology Transfer Program (No. T-RCED-97-157). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiao, S. (2012). Effects of adsorbates on the electronic properties of graphene (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, July 8). Scouting Report. New York Times, p. E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paulsson 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Finkelstein and Taubman 2015; Paulsson 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finkelstein and Taubman 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Bradshaw et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of STEM Education
ISSN (online)2196-7822

Other styles