How to format your references using the International Journal of STEM Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of STEM Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carpenter, S. (2007). Careers in behavioral science. Behavioral scientists get off the trail. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5827), 1058–1059.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fedo, C. M., & Whitehouse, M. J. (2002). Metasomatic origin of quartz-pyroxene rock, Akilia, Greenland, and implications for Earth’s earliest life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5572), 1448–1452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Strauss, S. H., Costanza, A., & Séguin, A. (2015). BIOTECHNOLOGY. Genetically engineered trees: Paralysis from good intentions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6250), 794–795.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Acharya, U., Patel, S., Koundakjian, E., Nagashima, K., Han, X., & Acharya, J. K. (2003). Modulating sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway rescues photoreceptor degeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5613), 1740–1743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Damrosch, D. (2017). How to Read World Literature. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kollins, S. H. (2010). Guide to Assessment Scales in Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (E. P. Sparrow & C. K. Conners, Eds.) (Second Edition.). Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.
A chapter in an edited book
Yuan, L.-P., Ma, G.-F., & Sun, R.-S. (2016). An Analysis of Fatigue and Its Characteristics: A Survey on Chinese Air Traffic Controller. In D. Harris (Ed.), Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 13th International Conference, EPCE 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings (pp. 38–47). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of STEM Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 17). Catalog Of Life’s Colors Created To Assist The Hunt For Extraterrestrial Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Aviation Security (No. RCED-94-307R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S.-C. (2008). Defiant institutionalization: Democratization and social movements in South Korea, 1984–2002 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, January 29). World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Bribery Case Against Acting Premier Is Dropped. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carpenter 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Carpenter 2007; Fedo and Whitehouse 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fedo and Whitehouse 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Acharya et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of STEM Education
ISSN (online)2196-7822

Other styles