How to format your references using the International Journal of STEM Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of STEM Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor, P. (2010). Questioning economic growth. Nature, 468(7322), 370–371.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffman, K. L., & McNaughton, B. L. (2002). Coordinated reactivation of distributed memory traces in primate neocortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5589), 2070–2073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mietto, P., Avanzini, M., & Rolandi, G. (2003). Palaeontology: Human footprints in Pleistocene volcanic ash. Nature, 422(6928), 133.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ciocchi, S., Herry, C., Grenier, F., Wolff, S. B. E., Letzkus, J. J., Vlachos, I., et al. (2010). Encoding of conditioned fear in central amygdala inhibitory circuits. Nature, 468(7321), 277–282.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hayward, A., & Weare, F. (2010). Steel Detailers’ Manual. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Sun, F., Hu, D., & Liu, H. (Eds.). (2014). Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, Beijing, China, Dec 2012 (CSIP2012) (Vol. 215). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, R., Emmerich, M. T. M., Eggermont, J., Bovenkamp, E. G. P., Bäck, T., Dijkstra, J., & Reiber, J. H. C. (2006). Mixed-Integer NK Landscapes. In T. P. Runarsson, H.-G. Beyer, E. Burke, J. J. Merelo-Guervós, L. D. Whitley, & X. Yao (Eds.), Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN IX: 9th International Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland, September 9-13, 2006, Proceedings (pp. 42–51). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of STEM Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 28). New Molecule That Mimics Exercise Could Help Treat Obesity and Diabetes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Deaf/Blind Children and the Centers Serving Them (No. 121879). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anemaet, W. K. (2008). The effects of non -surgical interventions on osteoarthritis-like changes in the mouse knee (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, January 29). World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Bribery Case Against Acting Premier Is Dropped. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maskin 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kurita 2012; Smetacek 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoffman and McNaughton 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Aubert et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of STEM Education
ISSN (online)2196-7822

Other styles