How to format your references using the International Journal of Speech Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Speech Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, C. R. (2010). Paleontology. Marine biodiversity dynamics over deep time. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5996), 1156–1157.
A journal article with 2 authors
McFarland, E. W., & Tang, J. (2003). A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission. Nature, 421(6923), 616–618.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okuda, S., Freinkman, E., & Kahne, D. (2012). Cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis powers transport of lipopolysaccharide across the periplasm in E. coli. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6111), 1214–1217.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mora, J. R., Bono, M. R., Manjunath, N., Weninger, W., Cavanagh, L. L., Rosemblatt, M., & Von Andrian, U. H. (2003). Selective imprinting of gut-homing T cells by Peyer’s patch dendritic cells. Nature, 424(6944), 88–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barron, E. N. (2013). Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
de Vries, N., Ravesloot, M., & van Maanen, J. P. (Eds.). (2015). Positional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertolino, A., Bucchiarone, A., Gnesi, S., & Muccini, H. (2005). An Architecture-Centric Approach for Producing Quality Systems. In R. Reussner, J. Mayer, J. A. Stafford, S. Overhage, S. Becker, & P. J. Schroeder (Eds.), Quality of Software Architectures and Software Quality: First International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2005, and Second International Workshop on Software Quality, SOQUA 2005, Erfurt, Germany, September 20-22, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 21–37). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Speech Technology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 11). Planet Nine May Have Been A Rogue World Captured By Our Solar System. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Technology Transfer: Constraints Perceived by Federal Laboratory and Agency Officials (No. RCED-88-116BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Redcay, J. D. (2014). Kindergarten students’ reading performance and perceptions of Ludus Reading: A mixed-method study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, October 3). Mets Take a Loss, Preserving Their Ace. New York Times, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Marshall 2010; McFarland and Tang 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McFarland and Tang 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mora et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Speech Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Speech Technol.
ISSN (print)1381-2416
ISSN (online)1572-8110
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Human-Computer Interaction
Linguistics and Language

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