How to format your references using the International Journal of Speech Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Speech Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davies, J. A. (2015). Biological techniques: Kidney tissue grown from induced stem cells. Nature, 526(7574), 512–513.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lessard, J., & Sauvageau, G. (2003). Bmi-1 determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukaemic stem cells. Nature, 423(6937), 255–260.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carslaw, K. S., Harrison, R. G., & Kirkby, J. (2002). Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5599), 1732–1737.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kural, C., Kim, H., Syed, S., Goshima, G., Gelfand, V. I., & Selvin, P. R. (2005). Kinesin and dynein move a peroxisome in vivo: a tug-of-war or coordinated movement? Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5727), 1469–1472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, S. R., Gregory, W. M., Twelves, C., & Brown, J. (2014). A Practical Guide to Designing Phase II Trials in Oncology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sirois, F. M., & Molnar, D. S. (Eds.). (2016). Perfectionism, Health, and Well-Being (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Adkinson, J. M. (2016). Upper Extremity Compression Neuropathies in Rheumatoid Patients. In K. C. Chung (Ed.), Clinical Management of the Rheumatoid Hand, Wrist, and Elbow (pp. 43–51). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Speech Technology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 23). A Hen Laid A Giant Egg With Something Pretty Strange Inside. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Space Acquisitions: Acquisition Management Continues to Improve but Challenges Persist for Current and Future Programs (No. GAO-14-382T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carolina, D. S. (2009). A qualitative study of the healthcare experiences and health information acquisition of African American men (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla, S. (2015, September 22). Fund Settlement. New York Times, p. B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davies 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Davies 2015; Lessard and Sauvageau 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lessard and Sauvageau 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kural et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Speech Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Speech Technol.
ISSN (print)1381-2416
ISSN (online)1572-8110
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Human-Computer Interaction
Linguistics and Language

Other styles