How to format your references using the International Journal of Speech Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Speech Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramchandani, P. (2004). A question of balance. Nature, 430(6998), 401–402.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, X., & Brelsford, C. (2014). Network structure and community evolution on Twitter: human behavior change in response to the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Scientific reports, 4, 6773.
A journal article with 3 authors
van den Ent, F., Amos, L. A., & Löwe, J. (2001). Prokaryotic origin of the actin cytoskeleton. Nature, 413(6851), 39–44.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Masmanidis, S. C., Karabalin, R. B., De Vlaminck, I., Borghs, G., Freeman, M. R., & Roukes, M. L. (2007). Multifunctional nanomechanical systems via tunably coupled piezoelectric actuation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5839), 780–783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staudt, G. (2001). Experimentalphysik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gavrilova, M. L., Tan, C. J. K., & Mostafavi, M. A. (Eds.). (2011). Transactions on Computational Science XIV: Special Issue on Voronoi Diagrams and Delaunay Triangulation (Vol. 6970). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barkalov, A., & Titarenko, L. (2008). Synthesis of compositional microprogram control units with code sharing. In A. Barkalov & L. Titarenko (Eds.), Logic Synthesis for Compositional Microprogram Control Units (pp. 99–135). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Speech Technology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, September 27). Strange Cloud Turns Out to Be Butterflies Migrating. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). NORAD’s Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability? (No. LCD-78-117). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sener, A. C. (2009). Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, November 17). A Footnote Explains a Dispute Over Treasury’s Bailout Figures. New York Times, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ramchandani 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lu and Brelsford 2014; Ramchandani 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Brelsford 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Masmanidis et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Speech Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Speech Technol.
ISSN (print)1381-2416
ISSN (online)1572-8110
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Human-Computer Interaction
Linguistics and Language

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