How to format your references using the International Journal of Speech Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Speech Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paddock, S. (2002). Tech.Sight. Optical sectioning--slices of life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5558), 1319–1321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pawson, T., & Nash, P. (2003). Assembly of cell regulatory systems through protein interaction domains. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5618), 445–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Culley, A. I., Lang, A. S., & Suttle, C. A. (2006). Metagenomic analysis of coastal RNA virus communities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5781), 1795–1798.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Han, G., Liu, Y., Zhang, L., Kan, E., Zhang, S., Tang, J., & Tang, W. (2014). MnO2 nanorods intercalating graphene oxide/polyaniline ternary composites for robust high-performance supercapacitors. Scientific reports, 4, 4824.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardi, F., Benoist, T., Darlay, J., Estellon, B., & Megel, R. (2014). Mathematical Programming Solver Based on Local Search. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
César, E., Alexander, M., Streit, A., Träff, J. L., Cérin, C., Knüpfer, A., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Euro-Par 2008 Workshops - Parallel Processing: VHPC 2008, UNICORE 2008, HPPC 2008, SGS 2008, PROPER 2008, ROIA 2008, and DPA 2008, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, August 25-26, 2008, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 5415). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Adams, A. E., Pegg, J. M., Bottoms, S. I., Smith Risser, H., Wu, K., & Kern, A. L. (2016). Storying Our Academic Career Transitions within a Peer-mentoring Community. In B. G. G. Johannessen (Ed.), Global Co-Mentoring Networks in Higher Education: Politics, Policies, and Practices (pp. 73–94). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Speech Technology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, January 10). Perhaps Porn Doesn’t Make Men Fall Out of Love After All. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). NASA: Lack of Disciplined Cost-Estimating Processes Hinders Effective Program Management (No. GAO-04-642). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manley Lima, M. C. (2014). Commuter Students’ Social Integration: The Relationship Between Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Sense of Belonging (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010, July 25). King of Shish Kabob (With Mother-in-Law’s Help). New York Times, p. NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paddock 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Paddock 2002; Pawson and Nash 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pawson and Nash 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Speech Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Speech Technol.
ISSN (print)1381-2416
ISSN (online)1572-8110
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Human-Computer Interaction
Linguistics and Language

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