How to format your references using the International Journal of Speech Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Speech Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cibelli, J. (2007). Development. Is therapeutic cloning dead? Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5858), 1879–1880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ettema, T. J. G., & Andersson, S. G. E. (2008). Comment on “A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 342; author reply 342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ofstad, T. A., Zuker, C. S., & Reiser, M. B. (2011). Visual place learning in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature, 474(7350), 204–207.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gupta, S., Hadzibabic, Z., Zwierlein, M. W., Stan, C. A., Dieckmann, K., Schunck, C. H., et al. (2003). Radio-frequency spectroscopy of ultracold fermions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1723–1726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A. K. M. E., Arashi, M., & Tabatabaey, S. M. M. (2014). Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alexandridis K., A. (2013). Weather Derivatives: Modeling and Pricing Weather-Related Risk. (A. D. Zapranis, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobolev, D. (2016). The Trauma of Modernism: Between Existential Indeterminacy and Allegoresis. In Y. Ataria, D. Gurevitz, H. Pedaya, & Y. Neria (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Handbook of Trauma and Culture (pp. 67–85). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Speech Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 10). What Happens When People With Autism Grow Old? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Federal Research and Development: Contributions to and Results of the Small Business Technology Transfer Program (No. GAO-01-766R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ionedes, N. J. (2008). An exploration of social interest therapy as a treatment for depression in the elderly (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, December 10). Helping Stamp Collectors and the Postally Confused. New York Times, p. 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cibelli 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Cibelli 2007; Ettema and Andersson 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ettema and Andersson 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Gupta et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Speech Technology
AbbreviationInt. J. Speech Technol.
ISSN (print)1381-2416
ISSN (online)1572-8110
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Human-Computer Interaction
Linguistics and Language

Other styles