How to format your references using the International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research (IJSDIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bucksbaum, P.H. (2004). Applied physics. X-ray movies of wiggling crystals, Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702): 1691–1692.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M.R. and J.-B. Caron (2015). Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans, Nature, 523(7558): 75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Caro, E., M.M. Castellano and C. Gutierrez (2007). A chromatin link that couples cell division to root epidermis patterning in Arabidopsis, Nature, 447(7141): 213–217.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, X.L., A.E. Kuznetsov, H.F. Zhang, A.I. Boldyrev and L.S. Wang (2001). Observation of all-metal aromatic molecules, Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5505): 859–861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath, A.E. (2011). Luther’s Theology of the Cross, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
(2014). Security and Cryptography for Networks: 9th International Conference, SCN 2014, Amalfi, Italy, September 3-5, 2014. Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramos, N.M.M., J.M.P.Q. Delgado, R.M.S.F. Almeida, M.L. Simões and S. Manuel (2016). "Case Study", in Delgado, J. M. P. Q., R. M. S. F. Almeida, M. L. Simões, and S. Manuel (Eds.). Application of Data Mining Techniques in the Analysis of Indoor Hygrothermal Conditions, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 31–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle (2016). How Cooperative Behaviour Could Make Artificial Intelligence More Human, at, [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Information Technology: VA Has Taken Important Steps to Centralize Control of Its Resources, but Effectiveness Depends on Additional Planned Actions, GAO-08-449T, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fischer, B.C. (2017). Toward Understanding Resonant Volcanic Seismic Signals: Modelling Bubbly Flow in Magma, Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013). The Dazzle of Neon.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bucksbaum, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bucksbaum, 2004; Smith and Caron, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Caron, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research
ISSN (print)1725-0463

Other styles