How to format your references using the International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research (IJSDIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, L. (2015). Animal behaviour: Nested instincts, Nature, 521(7552): S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shannon, M.F. and S. Rao (2002). Transcription. Of chips and ChIPs, Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5568): 666–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cotton, C.H., J. Flint and T.G. Campbell (2009). Is there an association between NPY and neuroticism?, Nature, 458(7238): E6; discussion E7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Groenigen, J.W. van, I.M. Lubbers, H.M.J. Vos, G.G. Brown, G.B. De Deyn and K.J. van Groenigen (2014). Earthworms increase plant production: a meta-analysis, Scientific reports, 4: 6365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balani, K., V. Verma, A. Agarwal and R. Narayan (2014). Biosurfaces, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reddy, G.V. (2016). Recovering Biodiversity in Indian Forests, Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Plonsey, R. and R.C. Barr (2007). "Action Potentials", in Barr, R. C. (Ed.). Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach, Boston, MA: Springer US, pp. 97–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015). Nobel Prize For Medicine Goes To Unsung Heroes In Fight Against Parasites And Malaria, at, [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). [Comments on Applicability of Vacancies Act to Various Labor and Education Officers], B-220522.2, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perry, E.M. (2010). Live and let live: Negotiating difference in a diverse urban neighborhood, Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). Someone Ought To Make a Movie.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gravitz, 2015; Shannon and Rao, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shannon and Rao, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (van Groenigen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research
ISSN (print)1725-0463

Other styles