How to format your references using the International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research (IJSDIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zewail, A.H. (2010). Four-dimensional electron microscopy, Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5975): 187–193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldsby, D.L. and T.E. Tullis (2011). Flash heating leads to low frictional strength of crustal rocks at earthquake slip rates, Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6053): 216–218.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huey, D.J., J.C. Hu and K.A. Athanasiou (2012). Unlike bone, cartilage regeneration remains elusive, Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6109): 917–921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sachs, J., R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S.J. Andelman, K.G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L.E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Lehmann, J.C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C.A. Palm, P.L. Pingali, J.P. Reganold, D.D. Richter, S.J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T.P. Tomich and P.A. Sanchez (2010). Monitoring the world’s agriculture, Nature, 466(7306): 558–560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shaw, M.T. (2011). Introduction to Polymer Rheology, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
(2016). Ovarian Stimulation Protocols, New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakada, M., D. Kita, Y. Hayashi, K. Kawakami, J.-I. Hamada and T. Minamoto (2010). "RNAi in Malignant Brain Tumors: Relevance to Molecular and Translational Research", in Erdmann, V. A. and J. Barciszewski (Eds.). RNA Technologies and Their Applications, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 107–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research.

Blog post
Fang, Janet (2015). Scientists Discover Strongest Known Natural Material, at, [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Selected Literature on Cost Accounting and Cost Control for Automatic Data Processing, 092323, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khayyat, A.M. (2015). Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). Juventus, Tainted by a Scandal, Tries to Regain Its Luster.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zewail, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Zewail, 2010; Goldsby and Tullis, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldsby and Tullis, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Sachs et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research
ISSN (print)1725-0463

Other styles