How to format your references using the International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research (IJSDIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wojchowski, D. (2011). Eugene Goldwasser (1922-2010), Nature, 470(7332): 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eames, M. and T. Kortemme (2012). Cost-benefit tradeoffs in engineered lac operons, Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6083): 911–915.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chait, R., A. Craney and R. Kishony (2007). Antibiotic interactions that select against resistance, Nature, 446(7136): 668–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meijsing, S.H., M.A. Pufall, A.Y. So, D.L. Bates, L. Chen and K.R. Yamamoto (2009). DNA binding site sequence directs glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity, Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5925): 407–410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunnivant, F.M. (2004). Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
(2015). Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures: 11th International Conference, BDAS 2015, Ustroń, Poland, May 26-29, 2015, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ernst, R., K.E. Linsenmair, R. Thomas and M.-O. Rödel (2007). "Amphibian communities in disturbed forests: lessons from the Neo- and Afrotropics", in Tscharntke, T., C. Leuschner, M. Zeller, E. Guhardja, and A. Bidin (Eds.). Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins: Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints of Land Use and Conservation, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 59–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo (2016). Beauty Of The Cosmos Revealed In Stunning Astronomy Photographer Of The Year 2016 Images, at, [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Truck Safety: Share the Road Safely Program Needs Better Evaluation of Its Initiatives, GAO-03-680, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierre, R.R. (2019). A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walker, M. (2017). Choosing Photographs Over Paintings.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wojchowski, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wojchowski, 2011; Eames and Kortemme, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eames and Kortemme, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Meijsing et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research
ISSN (print)1725-0463

Other styles