How to format your references using the International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research (IJSDIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Amaratunga, G.A.J. (2002). Applied physics. A dawn for carbon electronics?, Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5587): 1657–1658.
A journal article with 2 authors
Young, L.J. and C.E. Barrett (2015). Neuroscience. Can oxytocin treat autism?, Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6224): 825–826.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, W., Y. Shang and W. Li (2014). gp78 elongates of polyubiquitin chains from the distal end through the cooperation of its G2BR and CUE domains, Scientific reports, 4: 7138.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brocks, J.J., G.D. Love, R.E. Summons, A.H. Knoll, G.A. Logan and S.A. Bowden (2005). Biomarker evidence for green and purple sulphur bacteria in a stratified Palaeoproterozoic sea, Nature, 437(7060): 866–870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davison, M. (2011). Pharmaceutical Anti-Counterfeiting, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chaudhry, A. (2011). Analysis of Excitation and Ionization of Atoms and Molecules by Electron Impact, New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Halper, J. (2014). "Proteoglycans and Diseases of Soft Tissues", in Halper, J. (Ed.). Progress in Heritable Soft Connective Tissue Diseases, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 49–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015). How Do Our Brains Reconstruct The Visual World?, at, [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Space Exploration: Cost, Schedule, and Performance of NASA’s Magellan Mission to Venus, NSIAD-88-130FS, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulsifer, J.E. (2012). Learning from the Uighurs: Correcting Inadequate Due Process in Terrorist Financing Sanction Regimes, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008). Justices Rule on Retroactivity of Decisions.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Amaratunga, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Amaratunga, 2002; Young and Barrett, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Young and Barrett, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Brocks et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research
ISSN (print)1725-0463

Other styles