How to format your references using the International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research (IJSDIR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wicherts, J.M. (2011). Psychology must learn a lesson from fraud case, Nature, 480(7375): 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strausfeld, N.J. and F. Hirth (2013). Deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia, Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6129): 157–161.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore, S.W., N. Biais and M.P. Sheetz (2009). Traction on immobilized netrin-1 is sufficient to reorient axons, Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937): 166.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martin, K.H., J.K. Slack, S.A. Boerner, C.C. Martin and J.T. Parsons (2002). Integrin connections map: to infinity and beyond, Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573): 1652–1653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Häberlin, H. (2012). Photovoltaics, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
(2015). Epstein Barr Virus Volume 1: One Herpes Virus: Many Diseases, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Heinrich, A.B. (2014). "Life Cycle Assessment as Reflected by the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment", in Klöpffer, W. (Ed.). Background and Future Prospects in Life Cycle Assessment, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 145–188.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015). Why You Should Never Use Hand Sanitizer, [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973). Review of Selected Projects Under the Bilingual Education Program, B-164031(1), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kreisel, M. (2015). Gabor frames for quasicrystals and K-theory, Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tomasky, M. (2017). Paul Ryan’s Discontent.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wicherts, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wicherts, 2011; Strausfeld and Hirth, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strausfeld and Hirth, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Martin et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research
ISSN (print)1725-0463

Other styles