How to format your references using the International Journal of Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2004). Curiosity makes way for capitalism. Nature, 429(6988), 216–219.
A journal article with 2 authors
Druzd, D., & Scheiermann, C. (2013). Immunology. Some monocytes got rhythm. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6153), 1462–1464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krieger, M. J., Billeter, J. B., & Keller, L. (2000). Ant-like task allocation and recruitment in cooperative robots. Nature, 406(6799), 992–995.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhong, W., Feng, H., Santiago, F. E., & Kipreos, E. T. (2003). CUL-4 ubiquitin ligase maintains genome stability by restraining DNA-replication licensing. Nature, 423(6942), 885–889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geyer, T. (2016). Model Predictive Control of High Power Convertersand Industrial Drives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Demant, C. (2013). Industrial Image Processing: Visual Quality Control in Manufacturing (B. Streicher-Abel & C. Garnica, Eds.; 2nd revised ed. 2013). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, T., Close, D., Smartt, A., Ripp, S., & Sayler, G. (2014). Detection of Organic Compounds with Whole-Cell Bioluminescent Bioassays. In G. Thouand & R. Marks (Eds.), Bioluminescence: Fundamentals and Applications in Biotechnology - Volume 1 (pp. 111–151). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Science Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, July 1). Inside the World’s Largest Snake Orgy. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Federal Transit Administration: Progress Made in Implementing Changes to the Job Access Program, but Evaluation and Oversight Processes Need Improvement (GAO-07-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Porter, L. A. (2010). Defense Support of Civilian Authorities (DSCA): What emergency managers need to know [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008, January 16). Supreme Court Limits Lawsuits by Shareholders. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2004; Druzd & Scheiermann, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Druzd & Scheiermann, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Krieger et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhong et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Science Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0693
ISSN (online)1464-5289

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