How to format your references using the International Journal of Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levitin, C. (2000). Russian PM supports science. Nature, 405(6785), 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johansson, L. C., & Norberg, R. A. (2003). Delta-wing function of webbed feet gives hydrodynamic lift for swimming propulsion in birds. Nature, 424(6944), 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bernhard, H., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2006). Parochial altruism in humans. Nature, 442(7105), 912–915.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, W., Sun, Y., Balsam, W., Lu, H., Liu, L., Chen, J., & Ji, J. (2014). Hf-Nd isotopic variability in mineral dust from Chinese and Mongolian deserts: implications for sources and dispersal. Scientific Reports, 4, 5837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hofmeyr, G. J., Neilson, J. P., Alfirevic, Z., Crowther, C. A., Gülmezoglu, A. M., Hodnett, E. D., Gyte, G. M. L., & Duley, L. (2008). A Cochrane Pocketbook: Pregnancy and Childbirth. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Burnap, R., & Vermaas, W. (Eds.). (2012). Functional Genomics and Evolution of Photosynthetic Systems (Vol. 33). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, E. Y. (2012). Congenital Lung Masses. In R. H. Cleveland (Ed.), Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonology (pp. 31–38). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 8). European Weather-Monitoring Satellite Takes Its First Image Of Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). VBA Information Technology Investment (AIMD-97-10R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jordan, A. D. (2008). Measuring the efficacy of a Ninth Grade Academy on students with disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017, March 31). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levitin, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Johansson & Norberg, 2003; Levitin, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johansson & Norberg, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Bernhard et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Science Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0693
ISSN (online)1464-5289

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