How to format your references using the International Journal of Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Saksida, L. M. (2009). Neuroscience. Remembering outside the box. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5936), 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, G., & Roth, C. B. (2001). Structure of MsbA from E. coli: a homolog of the multidrug resistance ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5536), 1793–1800.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berger, J., Swenson, J. E., & Persson, I. L. (2001). Recolonizing carnivores and naïve prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5506), 1036–1039.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ihmels, J., Bergmann, S., Gerami-Nejad, M., Yanai, I., McClellan, M., Berman, J., & Barkai, N. (2005). Rewiring of the yeast transcriptional network through the evolution of motif usage. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5736), 938–940.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison, A. (2016). The Life of D. H. Lawrence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kolobov, A. V. (2012). Chalcogenides: Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena (J. Tominaga, Ed.; Vol. 164). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sundquist, H. (2010). Risks and Safety in Building Structures. In G. Grimvall, Å. J. Holmgren, P. Jacobsson, & T. Thedéen (Eds.), Risks in Technological Systems (pp. 47–68). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Science Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, August 24). New Species Of Monkey Discovered In The Remote Peruvian Rainforest. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Comments on “The Government Can Be More Productive in Collecting Its Debts by Following Commercial Practices” (B-194920). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks, J. (2017). Playing-With the World: Toy Story’s Aesthetics and Metaphysics of Play [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2014, June 25). Germany Can Inflict Pain on the U.S., as It Has Before. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Saksida, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chang & Roth, 2001; Saksida, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chang & Roth, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Berger et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ihmels et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Science Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0693
ISSN (online)1464-5289

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