How to format your references using the International Journal of Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagla, P. (2000). PALEONTOLOGY: Team Rejects Claim of Early Indian Fossils. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5483), 1273a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gong, C., & Maquat, L. E. (2011). lncRNAs transactivate STAU1-mediated mRNA decay by duplexing with 3’ UTRs via Alu elements. Nature, 470(7333), 284–288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsiang, S. M., Meng, K. C., & Cane, M. A. (2011). Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nature, 476(7361), 438–441.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Krinos, C. M., Coyne, M. J., Weinacht, K. G., Tzianabos, A. O., Kasper, D. L., & Comstock, L. E. (2001). Extensive surface diversity of a commensal microorganism by multiple DNA inversions. Nature, 414(6863), 555–558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toutain, L., & Minaburo, A. (2013). Local Networks and the Internet. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lesh, R., Galbraith, P. L., Haines, C. R., & Hurford, A. (Eds.). (2013). Modeling Students’ Mathematical Modeling Competencies: ICTMA 13. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
von Stackelberg, J. (2012). Control of Distributed Autonomous Systems – How to Get a Swarm to Succeed over an Overwhelming Challenge. In H. Unger, K. Kyamaky, & J. Kacprzyk (Eds.), Autonomous Systems: Developments and Trends (pp. 41–48). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Science Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 13). Hidden “Mantle Scars” Can Come To Life And Cause Earthquakes. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Identification of NASA Research and Development Programs Subject to Benefit-Cost Analysis (No. B-176104). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rahimi, R. M. (2014). Investigation of Porosity Evolution and Orthotropic Axes on Anisotropic Materials (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M., & Fausset, R. (2017, August 31). A Limitless City, Now Envisioning New Limitations. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bagla, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bagla, 2000; Gong & Maquat, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gong & Maquat, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Hsiang, Meng, & Cane, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Krinos et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Science Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0693
ISSN (online)1464-5289

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