How to format your references using the International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elvis, M. (2012). Greater observatories: A midlife crisis for X-ray astronomy. Nature, 486(7402), 181–182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shen, Y., & Ho, L. C. (2014). The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation. Nature, 513(7517), 210–213.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abe, E., Pennycook, S. J., & Tsai, A. P. (2003). Direct observation of a local thermal vibration anomaly in a quasicrystal. Nature, 421(6921), 347–350.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dürr, M., Biedermann, A., Hu, Z., Höfer, U., & Heinz, T. F. (2002). Probing high-barrier pathways of surface reactions by scanning tunneling microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5574), 1838–1841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2010). A Practical Approach to Hazard Identification for Operations and Maintenance Workers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kowalski, O., Musso, E., & Perrone, D. (Eds.). (2005). Complex, Contact and Symmetric Manifolds: In Honor of L. Vanhecke (Vol. 234). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Härdle, W. K., & Hlávka, Z. (2015). Multivariate Distributions. In Z. Hlávka (Ed.), Multivariate Statistics: Exercises and Solutions (pp. 43–70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 11). The Fastest Accelerating Organism on Earth is a Fungus! IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Motor Carriers: Establishing System for Self-Reporting Equipment Problems Appears Feasible, but Safety Benefits Questionable and Costs Unknown (No. GAO-17-132). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glock, M. (2008). Cultural futuristics: Bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario based planning (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, July 8). The 400: Aching to Win. New York Times, p. SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elvis 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Elvis 2012; Shen and Ho 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shen and Ho 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dürr et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Science and Mathematics Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Sci. Math. Educ.
ISSN (print)1571-0068
ISSN (online)1573-1774
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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