How to format your references using the International Journal of Parallel Programming citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Parallel Programming. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romanowicz, B.: Geophysics. The thickness of tectonic plates. Science. 324, 474–476 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, C.A., Bushman, B.J.: Psychology. The effects of media violence on society. Science. 295, 2377–2379 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, M.W., Spero, H.J., Lea, D.W.: Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Nature. 428, 160–163 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sussan, T.E., Yang, A., Li, F., Ostrowski, M.C., Reeves, R.H.: Trisomy represses Apc(Min)-mediated tumours in mouse models of Down’s syndrome. Nature. 451, 73–75 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Declerck, P.: Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA (2012)
An edited book
Rudolph, G.: Differential Geometry and Mathematical Physics: Part I. Manifolds, Lie Groups and Hamiltonian Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Slaughter, D.C.: The Biological Engineer: Sensing the Difference Between Crops and Weeds. In: Young, S.L. and Pierce, F.J. (eds.) Automation: The Future of Weed Control in Cropping Systems. pp. 71–95. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Parallel Programming.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Study Reveals How The Brain “Rebuilds” Itself In An Attempt To Cure Schizophrenia,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Biotechnology Regulation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lummus, S.: Perceptions of required leadership behaviors for nurse leaders as measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: For Those Without Key Cards, Too, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Parallel Programming
AbbreviationInt. J. Parallel Program.
ISSN (print)0885-7458
ISSN (online)1573-7640
ScopeInformation Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles