How to format your references using the International Journal of Parallel Programming citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Parallel Programming. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clack, J.A.: An early tetrapod from “Romer’s Gap.” Nature. 418, 72–76 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirkwood, T.B., Austad, S.N.: Why do we age? Nature. 408, 233–238 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Simiyu, K., Daar, A.S., Singer, P.A.: Global health. Stagnant health technologies in Africa. Science. 330, 1483–1484 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scholte, E.-J., Ng’habi, K., Kihonda, J., Takken, W., Paaijmans, K., Abdulla, S., Killeen, G.F., Knols, B.G.J.: An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes. Science. 308, 1641–1642 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips, J.J., Phillips, P., Pulliam, A.: Measuring ROI in Environment, Health, and Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Goldwyn, A.J., Silverman, R.M. eds: Mediterranean Modernism: Intercultural Exchange and Aesthetic Development. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Chatain, T., Haar, S.: A Canonical Contraction for Safe Petri Nets. In: Koutny, M., Haddad, S., and Yakovlev, A. (eds.) Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency IX. pp. 83–98. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Parallel Programming.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Jumping Spiders See Reds Thanks to Sunglasses-Like Filter


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NATO-Warsaw Pact: U.S. and Soviet Perspectives of the Conventional Force Balance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves, K.A.: An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., Shear, M.D., Paulson, M.: New Tack on Unrest Eases Tension in Missouri, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Parallel Programming
AbbreviationInt. J. Parallel Program.
ISSN (print)0885-7458
ISSN (online)1573-7640
ScopeInformation Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

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