How to format your references using the International Journal of Parallel Programming citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Parallel Programming. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilson, A.: For scientists who want a career in law, the options are greater than ever--and some don’t even involve going back to school. Nature. 423, 666–667 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Z., Lin, H.: Nanos maintains germline stem cell self-renewal by preventing differentiation. Science. 303, 2016–2019 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Grieco, F., van Noordwijk, A.J., Visser, M.E.: Evidence for the effect of learning on timing of reproduction in blue tits. Science. 296, 136–138 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boffelli, D., McAuliffe, J., Ovcharenko, D., Lewis, K.D., Ovcharenko, I., Pachter, L., Rubin, E.M.: Phylogenetic shadowing of primate sequences to find functional regions of the human genome. Science. 299, 1391–1394 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kill, R.: The BRC Global Standard for Food Safety. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2012)
An edited book
Dalang, R.C., Russo, F., Dozzi, M. eds: Seminar on Stochastic Analysis, Random Fields and Applications V: Centro Stefano Franscini, Ascona, May 2005. Birkhäuser, Basel (2008)
A chapter in an edited book
Chernyshov, A.A., Karelsky, K.V., Petrosyan, A.S.: Large Eddy Simulations of Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Heat-conducting Plasma. In: Palma, J.M.L.M. and Lopes, A.S. (eds.) Advances in Turbulence XI: Proceedings of the 11th EUROMECH European Turbulance Conference, June 25-28, 2007 Porto, Portugal. pp. 20–22. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Parallel Programming.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Scientists Find Evidence of Spin Symmetry in Atoms,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: VA Education Benefits: VA Needs to Improve Program Management and Provide More Timely Information to Students. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2013)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sokolov, C.K.: Teacher Engagement In Grades 4-8, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Cooper, H., Schmitt, E.: Trump Warns Assad After Reports of Possible Gas Preparations, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Parallel Programming
AbbreviationInt. J. Parallel Program.
ISSN (print)0885-7458
ISSN (online)1573-7640
ScopeInformation Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

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