How to format your references using the European Heart Journal - Acute Cardiovascular Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Heart Journal - Acute Cardiovascular Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guan J-L. Cell biology. Integrins, rafts, Rac, and Rho. Science 2004; 303: 773–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Witt E, Ashworth A. Biomedicine. D-Day for BRCA2. Science 2002; 297: 534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser SM, Malik HS, Emerman M. Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5alpha antiviral protein. Science 2007; 316: 1756–1758.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Santos-Lleo M, Schartel N, Tananbaum H, et al. The first decade of science with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Nature 2009; 462: 997–1004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stauffer HB. Contemporary Bayesian and Frequentist Statistical Research Methods for Natural Resource Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
van Latesteijn H, Andeweg K (eds). The TransForum Model: Transforming Agro Innovation Toward Sustainable Development. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi J, Cheng L, Gershon ES, et al. G72/G30 in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. In: Lajtha A, Javitt D, Kantrowitz J (eds) Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Schizophrenia. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009, pp. 91–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Heart Journal - Acute Cardiovascular Care.

Blog post
Andrew E. Huge Trial Shows Early HIV Treatment Dramatically Improves Patient Outcome. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reports Issued in August 1988. 136830, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1 August 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schliebe MC. Impact of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii ) on benthic community structure in southern California wetlands. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Opening Up About a Closed World. New York Times, 9 July 2017, p. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Heart Journal - Acute Cardiovascular Care
AbbreviationEur. Heart J. Acute Cardiovasc. Care
ISSN (print)2048-8726
ISSN (online)2048-8734
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Other styles