How to format your references using the International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G., 2002. Cosmology: it all adds up. Nature 420, 731–732.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finkel, T., Holbrook, N.J., 2000. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408, 239–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bobrov, K., Mayne, A.J., Dujardin, G., 2001. Atomic-scale imaging of insulating diamond through resonant electron injection. Nature 413, 616–619.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eldred, K.C., Hadyniak, S.E., Hussey, K.A., Brenerman, B., Zhang, P.-W., Chamling, X., Sluch, V.M., Welsbie, D.S., Hattar, S., Taylor, J., Wahlin, K., Zack, D.J., Johnston, R.J., Jr, 2018. Thyroid hormone signaling specifies cone subtypes in human retinal organoids. Science 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raymond, S.U., 2013. Recession, Recovery, and Renewal: Long-Term Nonprofit Strategies for Rapid Economic Change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Talapatra, S.K., 2015. Chemistry of Plant Natural Products: Stereochemistry, Conformation, Synthesis, Biology, and Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Holovaty, A., Kaplan-Moss, J., 2008. Interacting with a Database: Models, in: Kaplan-Moss, J. (Ed.), The Definitive Guide to Django: Web Development Done Right. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 59–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. NASA Is Launching An Incredible Mission To An Asteroid This Thursday [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. GAO Report on Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. AIMD-00-81R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chitakasempornkul, K., 2012. Ordinal time series analysis for Air Quality Index (AQI) in San Bernardino County (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., de la MERCED, M.J., 2014. Detroit Plan Is Said to Split Creditors Into 2 Groups. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2002; Finkel and Holbrook, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finkel and Holbrook, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Eldred et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
AbbreviationInt. J. Orthop. Trauma Nurs.
ISSN (print)1878-1241
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Other styles