How to format your references using the International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elshakry, M., 2009. Global Darwin: Eastern enchantment. Nature 461, 1200–1201.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sillanpää, M.A., Hakonen, P.J., 2014. Optomechanics: Hardware for a quantum network. Nature 507, 45, 47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hassan, M.A., Mahmoodian, R., Hamdi, M., 2014. Modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) for the analysis of centrifugally assisted TiC-Fe-Al2O3 combustion synthesis. Sci. Rep. 4, 3724.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ioffe, L.B., Feigel’man, M.V., Ioselevich, A., Ivanov, D., Troyer, M., Blatter, G., 2002. Topologically protected quantum bits using Josephson junction arrays. Nature 415, 503–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigo, M., 2014. Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Antoniadis, A., Poggi, J.-M., Brossat, X. (Eds.), 2015. Modeling and Stochastic Learning for Forecasting in High Dimensions, Lecture Notes in Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T., Gebhardt, E., 2014. Students’ Computer and Information Literacy, in: Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T., Gebhardt, E. (Eds.), Preparing for Life in a Digital Age: The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study International Report. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Early Warning Trigger Found For Most Unpredictable Kind Of Volcanic Eruption [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Aviation Safety: Status of FAA’s Actions to Oversee the Safety of Composite Airplanes (No. GAO-11-849). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
France, K.A., 2015. Triadic Supervision: An Exploration of Supervisors’ Perceptions, Experiences and Practices (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J., 2016. Fixation on Fake News Obscures a Waning Trust in Real Reporting. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elshakry, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Elshakry, 2009; Sillanpää and Hakonen, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sillanpää and Hakonen, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ioffe et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
AbbreviationInt. J. Orthop. Trauma Nurs.
ISSN (print)1878-1241
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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