How to format your references using the International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M., 2007. Postdoc redefined. Nature 446, 1114.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, M.A., Fee, M.S., 2008. Using temperature to analyse temporal dynamics in the songbird motor pathway. Nature 456, 189–194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Immerzeel, W.W., van Beek, L.P.H., Bierkens, M.F.P., 2010. Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science 328, 1382–1385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beall, E.L., Manak, J.R., Zhou, S., Bell, M., Lipsick, J.S., Botchan, M.R., 2002. Role for a Drosophila Myb-containing protein complex in site-specific DNA replication. Nature 420, 833–837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdul-Rahman, Y., 2014. The Art of RF (Riba-Free) Islamic Banking and Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Padois, V., Bidaud, P., Khatib, O. (Eds.), 2013. Romansy 19 – Robot Design, Dynamics and Control: Proceedings of the 19th CISM-Iftomm Symposium, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Marshall, A.W., Olkin, I., Arnold, B.C., 2011. Equivalent Conditions for Majorization, in: Olkin, I., Arnold, B.C. (Eds.), Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and Its Applications, Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 155–163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Computer Scientists Generate A Self-Aware Mario That Can Learn And Feel [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. NASA Certification of Funds (No. AFMD-93-30ML). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Besson, P.S., 2015. Affective Organizational Commitment: A Comparative View of the Experience of 5-7 Year Managerial Employees Who Participated in an Employee Identity Network (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 1994. Sex and Drugs and Mick and Keith. New York Times 737.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2007; Long and Fee, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long and Fee, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Beall et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
AbbreviationInt. J. Orthop. Trauma Nurs.
ISSN (print)1878-1241
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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