How to format your references using the International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aguzzi, A., 2005. Cell biology. Prion toxicity: all sail and no anchor. Science 308, 1420–1421.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soubeyrand, B., Plotkin, S.A., 2002. Microbial evolution: antitoxin vaccines and pathogen virulence. Nature 417, 609–10; discussion 610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marston, J.O., Riker, P.W., Thoroddsen, S.T., 2014. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling. Sci. Rep. 4, 4326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van Rijn, S., Nilsson, J., Noske, D.P., Vandertop, W.P., Tannous, B.A., Würdinger, T., 2013. Functional multiplex reporter assay using tagged Gaussia luciferase. Sci. Rep. 3, 1046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nova, R., 2013. Soil Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Castelnuovo, P., 2013. Surgical Anatomy of the Internal Carotid Artery: An Atlas for Skull Base Surgeons. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Boudjehem, B., Boudjehem, D., 2012. Parameter Tuning of a Fractional-Order PI Controller Using the ITAE Criteria, in: Baleanu, D., Machado, J.A.T., Luo, A.C.J. (Eds.), Fractional Dynamics and Control. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 49–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Healthy Mouse Pups Born From Lab Grown Eggs In World First [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Substitution of Shore Leave for Sick Leave (No. B-171947). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghale, K., 2015. Modeling the Traffic Impacts During Evacuation of a Suburban University Campus: A Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Abad, S., Casey, N., 2017. Race Is On to Find Survivors of Colombia Mudslide. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aguzzi, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Aguzzi, 2005; Soubeyrand and Plotkin, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Soubeyrand and Plotkin, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (van Rijn et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
AbbreviationInt. J. Orthop. Trauma Nurs.
ISSN (print)1878-1241
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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