How to format your references using the International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2005. Out in the cold. Nature 434, 935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann, D.E., Rothenberg, K.H., 2005. Science and law. When should judges admit or compel genetic tests? Science 310, 241–242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ainsworth, S., Prain, V., Tytler, R., 2011. Science education. Drawing to learn in science. Science 333, 1096–1097.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tian, P., Keusters, D., Suzaki, Y., Warren, W.S., 2003. Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy. Science 300, 1553–1555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bosq, D., Blanke, D., 2007. Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions: Bosq/Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Theeramunkong, T., Nattee, C., Adeodato, P.J.L., Chawla, N., Christen, P., Lenca, P., Poon, J., Williams, G. (Eds.), 2010. New Frontiers in Applied Data Mining: PAKDD 2009 International Workshops, Bangkok, Thailand, April 27-30, 2009. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Perrier, S., Champoux, Y., Drouet, J.-M., 2012. Using Substructuring to Predict the Human Hand Influence on a Mechanical Structure, in: Mayes, R., Rixen, D., Griffith, D.T., De Klerk, D., Chauhan, S., Voormeeren, S.N., Allen, M.S. (Eds.), Topics in Experimental Dynamics Substructuring and Wind Turbine Dynamics, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 30th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2012, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Bilingual Chimps Can Grunt “Apple” in Two Languages [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/bilingual-chimps-can-grunt-apple-two-languages/ (accessed 10.30.18).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Student Financial Aid: Characteristics of Jobs Provided Through the College Work-Study Program (No. HRD-92-72BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kovacev, R.J., 2008. Encouraging employee entrepreneurial spirit: A phenomenological case study of a large technology enterprise (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chavez, L., 2006. American Dreams, Foreign Flags. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffmann and Rothenberg, 2005; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoffmann and Rothenberg, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tian et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
AbbreviationInt. J. Orthop. Trauma Nurs.
ISSN (print)1878-1241
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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