How to format your references using the International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Chapman, Protein purification: pure but not simple, Nature. 434 (2005) 795–798.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.L. Altshuler, C.J. Clark, Ecology and evolution. Darwin’s hummingbirds, Science. 300 (2003) 588–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Aviezer, Y. Trope, A. Todorov, Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions, Science. 338 (2012) 1225–1229.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.L. Yu, J.W. Rak, B.L. Coomber, D.J. Hicklin, R.S. Kerbel, Effect of p53 status on tumor response to antiangiogenic therapy, Science. 295 (2002) 1526–1528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.S. Zigangirov, Theory of Code Division Multiple Access Communication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2004.
An edited book
T. Dingsøyr, N.B. Moe, R. Tonelli, S. Counsell, C. Gencel, K. Petersen, eds., Agile Methods. Large-Scale Development, Refactoring, Testing, and Estimation: XP 2014 International Workshops, Rome, Italy, May 26-30, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
E.L. Larsen, People and Place: The Interrelated Connections Between Interactions, Perceptions and Space, in: C. Stock, A. Ellaway (Eds.), Neighbourhood Structure and Health Promotion, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2013: pp. 77–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Mathematics, Spaghetti Alla Carbonara And You, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Local Tax Abatement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Seegmiller Renner, Empathy Development Through Role Modeling: A Qualitative Study of Instructor Experiences, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.B. Stewart, In Chamber of Secrets: An Author’s Net Worth, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Non Linear Mech.
ISSN (print)0020-7462
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Applied Mathematics

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