How to format your references using the International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Gavaghan, Companies of all sizes are prospecting for proteins, Nature. 404 (2000) 684–686.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.G. Cory, T.F. Havel, Physics. Ion entanglement in quantum information processing, Science. 304 (2004) 1456–1457.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.C. Cohen, J.D. Horton, H.H. Hobbs, Human fatty liver disease: old questions and new insights, Science. 332 (2011) 1519–1523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Johansson, A. Rytkonen, P. Bergman, B. Albiger, H. Källström, T. Hökfelt, B. Agerberth, R. Cattaneo, A.-B. Jonsson, CD46 in meningococcal disease, Science. 301 (2003) 373–375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Hens, Building Physics - Heat, Air and Moisture, Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany, 2012.
An edited book
A.J. Brooks, J. Clasper, M. Midwinter, T.J. Hodgetts, P.F. Mahoney, eds., Ryan’s Ballistic Trauma: A Practical Guide, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
D.J. Pagliari, M. Poncino, E. Macii, Energy-Efficient Digital Processing via Approximate Computing, in: N. Bombieri, M. Poncino, G. Pravadelli (Eds.), Smart Systems Integration and Simulation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 55–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics.

Blog post
B. Taub, Ireland Wants To Legalize Supervised Heroin Use, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Los Angeles and Riverside Counties, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Prietto, No place like home: The problem and the promise of the home psychotherapy office, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Chapman, In Michigan, Homage to the Auto’s Heritage, New York Times. (2010) AU4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Non Linear Mech.
ISSN (print)0020-7462
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Applied Mathematics

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