How to format your references using the International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Hede, Emergency medicine: The need for speed, Nature. 503 (2013) S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Yue, C.A. Angell, Clarifying the glass-transition behaviour of water by comparison with hyperquenched inorganic glasses, Nature. 427 (2004) 717–720.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.S. Parker, S.M. Roe, D. Barford, Structural insights into mRNA recognition from a PIWI domain-siRNA guide complex, Nature. 434 (2005) 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Liang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhou, J. Xie, X. Zhang, M. Guan, B. Pan, Y. Xie, High-performance flexible electrochromic device based on facile semiconductor-to-metal transition realized by WO3·2H2O ultrathin nanosheets, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Held, Virtual Private Networking, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
M.S. Mueller, B.M. Chapman, B.R. de Supinski, A.D. Malony, M. Voss, eds., OpenMP Shared Memory Parallel Programming: International Workshops, IWOMP 2005 and IWOMP 2006, Eugene, OR, USA, June 1-4, 2005, Reims, France, June 12-15, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Eschmeier, On the Maximal Ideal Space of a Sarason-Type Algebra on the Unit Ball, in: R.G. Douglas, S.G. Krantz, E.T. Sawyer, S. Treil, B.D. Wick (Eds.), The Corona Problem: Connections Between Operator Theory, Function Theory, and Geometry, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, 5 Ways Social Media Is Changing Your Brain, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Implementation of the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Guzman, Numerical investigations of a pipe jet with coil insert issuing into a crossflow, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, The (Forever) New Romantics, New York Times. (2016) CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Non Linear Mech.
ISSN (print)0020-7462
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Applied Mathematics

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