How to format your references using the International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caruana, C., 2005. An eastern promise of regeneration. Nature 435, 998–999.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans, J.W., Thiel, P.A., 2010. Chemistry. A little chemistry helps the big get bigger. Science 330, 599–600.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlson, R.H., Cornell, H.V., Hughes, T.P., 2004. Coral communities are regionally enriched along an oceanic biodiversity gradient. Nature 429, 867–870.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tan, H.L., Kupershmidt, S., Zhang, R., Stepanovic, S., Roden, D.M., Wilde, A.A.M., Anderson, M.E., Balser, J.R., 2002. A calcium sensor in the sodium channel modulates cardiac excitability. Nature 415, 442–447.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davies, D., 2011. Philosophy of the Performing Arts. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Rozmaryn, L.M. (Ed.), 2015. Fingertip Injuries: Diagnosis, Management and Reconstruction. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Solano-Aragón, C., Castillo, O., 2015. Optimization of Benchmark Mathematical Functions Using the Firefly Algorithm with Dynamic Parameters, in: Castillo, O., Melin, P. (Eds.), Fuzzy Logic Augmentation of Nature-Inspired Optimization Metaheuristics: Theory and Applications, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 81–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Calories In, Calories Out – Obesity And The Energy Imbalance Gap [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Diploma Mills: Diploma Mills Are Easily Created and Some Have Issued Bogus Degrees to Federal Employees at Government Expense (No. GAO-04-1096T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulido, B.B., 2015. Homes as grounding counterspaces: Mexicana undocumented students utilizing mother-daughter pedagogies of resistance to succeed in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. A Mets Pitcher’s Call-Up From Class AA Is a Surprise to Him. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bonetta, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Matsuda, 2014; Offringa, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Thiel, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Chodavarapu et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
ISSN (print)2092-6782
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Ocean Engineering

Other styles