How to format your references using the Geophysical Journal International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysical Journal International (GJI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, P.E. (2012) Chemistry. Algae under pressure and in hot water. Science, 338, 1039–1040.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicer, G.J. & Yu, Y.-T.N. (2003) Evolution of novel cooperative swarming in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature, 425, 75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kramer, G., Guilbride, D.L. & Bukau, B. (2015) Cell Biology. Finding nascent proteins the right home. Science, 348, 182–183.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Takasu, M.A., Dalva, M.B., Zigmond, R.E. & Greenberg, M.E. (2002) Modulation of NMDA receptor-dependent calcium influx and gene expression through EphB receptors. Science, 295, 491–495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bowers, D., House, A. & Owens, D. (2011) Getting Started in Health Research, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Guerraggio, A. (2013) Vito Volterra. (G. Paoloni, Ed.), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Imoto, Y. & Horiguchi, S. (2015) Bringing a European Language Policy into a Japanese Educational Institution. in Foreign Language Education in Japan: Exploring Qualitative Approaches eds. Horiguchi, S., Imoto, Y. & Poole, G.S., pp. 65–83, Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysical Journal International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 27) Researchers Discover How Pac-Man Frogs Are Able To Hunt Large Prey. IFLScience, IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998) Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments ( No. AA-98-13(1)), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lotrecchiano, G.R. (2012) Social Mechanisms of Team Science: A Descriptive Case Study Using a Multilevel Systems Perspective Employing Reciprocating Structuration Theory, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, July 14) Songkick Sells Name and Concert-Recommending Service. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Velicer & Yu 2003, Savage 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Velicer & Yu 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Takasu et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysical Journal International
ISSN (print)0956-540X
ISSN (online)1365-246X

Other styles