How to format your references using the Geophysical Journal International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysical Journal International (GJI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns, J.A. (2014) Solar system: Ring in the new. Nature, 508, 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maund, J.R. & Smartt, S.J. (2009) The disappearance of the progenitors of supernovae 1993J and 2003gd. Science, 324, 486–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baughman, R.H., Zakhidov, A.A. & Heer, W.A. de. (2002) Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications. Science, 297, 787–792.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Doyle, M., Fookes, M., Ivens, A., Mangan, M.W., Wain, J. & Dorman, C.J. (2007) An H-NS-like stealth protein aids horizontal DNA transmission in bacteria. Science, 315, 251–252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mittleman, A.L. (2011) A Short History of Jewish Ethics, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Shaikh, F.K., Chowdhry, B.S., Zeadally, S., Hussain, D.M.A., Memon, A.A. & Uqaili, M.A. (Eds.). (2014) Communication Technologies, Information Security and Sustainable Development: Third International Multi-topic Conference, IMTIC 2013, Jamshoro, Pakistan, December 18--20, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 414, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lange, D.S., Verbancsics, P., Gutzwiller, R.S., Reeder, J. & Sarles, C. (2012) Command and Control of Teams of Autonomous Systems. in Large-Scale Complex IT Systems. Development, Operation and Management: 17th Monterey Workshop 2012, Oxford, UK, March 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science eds. Calinescu, R. & Garlan, D., pp. 81–93, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysical Journal International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 31) Scientists Translate Penguin Calls. IFLScience, IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998) Federal Surplus Ships: Government Efforts to Address the Growing Backlog of Ships Awaiting Disposal ( No. NSIAD-99-18), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, K.S. (2008) Towards an improved baton technique: The application and modification of conducting gestures drawn from the methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitö for enhanced performance of orchestral interpretations, Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, June 21) Poetry in Missed Connections. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burns 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Burns 2014, [CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maund & Smartt 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Doyle et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysical Journal International
ISSN (print)0956-540X
ISSN (online)1365-246X

Other styles