How to format your references using the Geophysical Journal International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysical Journal International (GJI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, G.E. (2004) Ecology. A head start for some redstarts. Science, 306, 2201–2202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hazen, R.M. & Roedder, E. (2001) Biogeology. How old are bacteria from the Permian age? Nature, 411, 155–156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarlinton, R.E., Meers, J. & Young, P.R. (2006) Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature, 442, 79–81.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kimel, A.V., Kirilyuk, A., Usachev, P.A., Pisarev, R.V., Balbashov, A.M. & Rasing, T. (2005) Ultrafast non-thermal control of magnetization by instantaneous photomagnetic pulses. Nature, 435, 655–657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer, J.H. & Drew, L.J. (2010) Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pitkänen, P., Içduygu, A. & Sert, D. (Eds.). (2012) Migration and Transformation: Multi-Level Analysis of Migrant Transnationalism. International Perspectives on Migration, Vol. 3, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Tavernier, F. & Steyaert, M. (2011) From current to voltage—The transimpedance amplifier. in High-Speed Optical Receivers with Integrated Photodiode in Nanoscale CMOS ed. Steyaert, M., pp. 77–135, New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysical Journal International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 20) Can You Really Be GM-free? Why New European Laws Pose A Moral Dilemma. IFLScience, IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978) Reporting of Federal Funds for Research and Development ( No. PSAD-78-133), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones, C. (2015) Evolutionary changes in development associated with a transition in larval nutritional mode in spiralians, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. (2016, March 7) Obama Pays Tribute to the ‘Peanuts’ Gang. New York Times, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hill 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hazen & Roedder 2001, Hill 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hazen & Roedder 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kimel et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysical Journal International
ISSN (print)0956-540X
ISSN (online)1365-246X

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