How to format your references using the Geophysical Journal International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysical Journal International (GJI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook, R.J., 2000. W. David Kingery (1926-2000). Nature, 406, 582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brochard-Wyart, F. & Gennes, P.G. de, 2003. Physics. How soft skin wrinkles. Science, 300, 441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, A.H., Makovicky, P.J. & Norell, M.A., 2007. Feather quill knobs in the dinosaur Velociraptor. Science, 317, 1721.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Palchykov, V., Mitrović, M., Jo, H.-H., Saramäki, J. & Pan, R.K., 2014. Inferring human mobility using communication patterns. Sci. Rep., 4, 6174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, G.A., 2015. Pesticides, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kordy, B., Ekstedt, M. & Kim, D.S. (Eds.), 2016. Graphical Models for Security: Third International Workshop, GraMSec 2016, Lisbon, Portugal, June 27, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 9987, Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Christen, P., Vatsalan, D. & Fu, Z., 2015. Advanced Record Linkage Methods and Privacy Aspects for Population Reconstruction—A Survey and Case Studies. in Population Reconstruction, pp. 87–110, eds. Bloothooft, G., Christen, P., Mandemakers, K. & Schraagen, M., Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysical Journal International.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017, March 20. 33 Stunning Images Shortlisted For The Sony World Photography Awards 2017. IFLScience, IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. National Airspace System: FAA’s Approach to Its New Communications System Appears Prudent, but Challenges Remain ( No. GAO-02-710), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, C.M., 2017. Is this working? A study on measuring the effectiveness of efforts to diversify the theatre management field, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruiz, R.R., 2016, October 5. Sharapova Suspension Is Cut by Nine Months. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brook 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Brook 2000; Brochard-Wyart & de Gennes 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brochard-Wyart & de Gennes 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Palchykov et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysical Journal International
ISSN (print)0956-540X
ISSN (online)1365-246X

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