How to format your references using the Geophysical Journal International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysical Journal International (GJI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stuart, J.S. (2001) A near-Earth asteroid population estimate from the LINEAR survey. Science, 294, 1691–1693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer, P.I. & Smith, M.J. (2014) Earth systems: Model human adaptation to climate change. Nature, 512, 365–366.
A journal article with 3 authors
Csankovszki, G., McDonel, P. & Meyer, B.J. (2004) Recruitment and spreading of the C. elegans dosage compensation complex along X chromosomes. Science, 303, 1182–1185.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nakamura, D., Gunjishima, I., Yamaguchi, S., Ito, T., Okamoto, A., Kondo, H., Onda, S., et al. (2004) Ultrahigh-quality silicon carbide single crystals. Nature, 430, 1009–1012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Conrick, C., IV & Hanson, S. (2013) Vertical Option Spreads, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bessis, N. & Dobre, C. (Eds.). (2014) Big Data and Internet of Things: A Roadmap for Smart Environments. Studies in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 546, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Krauss, J.K. (2009) History of Stereotactic Surgery in Germany. in Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery eds. Lozano, A.M., Gildenberg, P.L. & Tasker, R.R., pp. 53–58, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysical Journal International.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, January 29) Hubble Captures Image Of Galactic Merger. IFLScience, IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986) Relaxation of the Common Failure Rate Assumption in Modelling Software Reliability ( No. 130464), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, B. (2017) An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation, Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA, University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, October 23) Pink’s Latest Album Tops Billboard Chart. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stuart 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Stuart 2001, Palmer & Smith 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palmer & Smith 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakamura et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysical Journal International
ISSN (print)0956-540X
ISSN (online)1365-246X

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