How to format your references using the Geophysical Journal International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysical Journal International (GJI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, C.R., 2006. Evolution. Fossil record reveals tropics as cradle and museum. Science, 314, 66–67.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leontis, N.B. & Westhof, E., 2014. Chemistry. Self-assembled RNA nanostructures. Science, 345, 732–733.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doebeli, M., Hauert, C. & Killingback, T., 2004. The evolutionary origin of cooperators and defectors. Science, 306, 859–862.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, Y., Fan, H., Xu, J., Xiao, Y., Xu, Y., Li, Y. & Li, X., 2013. Network analysis reveals functional cross-links between disease and inflammation genes. Sci. Rep., 3, 3426.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vacca, J.R., 2006. Optical Networking Best Practices Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Khamashta, M.A., 2010. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Handbook. (M. L. Bertolaccini & O. Ateka-Barrutia, Eds.), Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo, T., Chen, S., Xu, G. & Zhou, J., 2013. Sentiment Analysis. in Trust-based Collective View Prediction, pp. 53–68, eds. Chen, S., Xu, G. & Zhou, J., Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysical Journal International.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017, January 20. Incoming Secretary Of Energy Rick Perry Has No Idea What The Job Actually Is. IFLScience, IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Federal Education Funding: Multiple Programs and Lack of Data Raise Efficiency and Effectiveness Concerns ( No. T-HEHS-98-46), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, J.W., 2006. The Relation Between Expressed Emotion and Adolescent Psychopathology, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2016, September 17. Pursuing Gold, Not Platitudes. New York Times, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Marshall 2006; Leontis & Westhof 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leontis & Westhof 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysical Journal International
ISSN (print)0956-540X
ISSN (online)1365-246X

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