How to format your references using the International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.E. Ley, The gene-microbe link, Nature. 518 (2015) S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.W. Loehlin, S.B. Carroll, Evolutionary biology: Sex, lies and butterflies, Nature. 507 (2014) 172–173.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Schmauss, Z. Lee-McDermott, L.R. Medina, Trans-generational effects of early life stress: the role of maternal behavior, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4873.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.J. Scott, D.-C. Oh, M.C. Yuceer, K.D. Klepzig, J. Clardy, C.R. Currie, Bacterial protection of beetle-fungus mutualism, Science. 322 (2008) 63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Le Chevalier, D. Lesselier, R. Staraj, Non-standard Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
H. Bellout, Incompressible Bipolar and Non-Newtonian Viscous Fluid Flow, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Pruteanu-Podpiera, L. Weill, F. Schobert, Banking Competition and Efficiency: A Micro-Data Analysis on the Czech Banking Industry, in: J.C. Brada, P. Wachtel (Eds.), Global Banking Crises and Emerging Markets, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 52–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Meet Rhinorex: The Aptly-Named “King Nose” Hadrosaur, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation: Impact of Fuel Price Increases on the Aviation Industry, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Barrett, Racial congruence and its effects on social integration and school involvement: A multi-level model, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, For Roosevelt Schools, New Year and New Woes, New York Times. (2006) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture
ISSN (print)2588-8404

Other styles