How to format your references using the International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.K. Balch, Atmospheric science: drought and fire change sink to source, Nature. 506 (2014) 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.A. Rice, R. Haselkorn, Paul Mead Doty (1920-2011), Nature. 481 (2012) 266.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Sarbu, T. Styranec, E.J. Beckman, Non-fluorous polymers with very high solubility in supercritical CO2 down to low pressures, Nature. 405 (2000) 165–168.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.D. Dowell, O. Ryan, A. Jansen, D. Cheung, S. Agarwala, T. Danford, D.A. Bernstein, P.A. Rolfe, L.E. Heisler, B. Chin, C. Nislow, G. Giaever, P.C. Phillips, G.R. Fink, D.K. Gifford, C. Boone, Genotype to phenotype: a complex problem, Science. 328 (2010) 469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Z. Abdullaeva, Nano- and Biomaterials, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2017.
An edited book
J. Monaghan, Tools and Mathematics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J.F. Gordon, R.L. Kramm, Clinical Trials for IOP-Lowering Devices to Support an FDA Premarket Submission, in: J.R. Samples, I.I.K. Ahmed (Eds.), Surgical Innovations in Glaucoma, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 61–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Asteroid Day Officially Recognized As June 30 By United Nations, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Poor Design and Management Hamper Army’s Basic Skills Education Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.E. Pulsifer, Learning from the Uighurs: Correcting Inadequate Due Process in Terrorist Financing Sanction Regimes, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Novick, When the Brew Is as Crucial as the Bean, New York Times. (2015) LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture
ISSN (print)2588-8404

Other styles