How to format your references using the International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Knight, Senators call for biodefence boost, Nature. 413 (2001) 441.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.G. Nisbet, J. Chappellaz, Atmospheric science. Shifting gear, quickly, Science. 324 (2009) 477–478.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Chung, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices, Science. 330 (2010) 655–657.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Aléon, F. Robert, J. Duprat, S. Derenne, Extreme oxygen isotope ratios in the early Solar System, Nature. 437 (2005) 385–388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.M. Bolstad, J.M. Curran, Introduction to Bayesian Statistics, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
T.A. Chowdhury, ed., Diabetes Management in Clinical Practice, Springer, London, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
R.V. Rao, V.J. Savsani, Applications of Hybrid Optimization Algorithms to the Unconstrained and Constrained Problems, in: V.J. Savsani (Ed.), Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques, Springer, London, 2012: pp. 123–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Salmon Sperm Could Help Us Recycle Rare Earth Elements, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Civil Agency Aircraft: Agencies’ Use of Certain Aircraft to Transport Passengers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.W. Bigelow, Perception of Online Legal Education among Recently Retired Law School Faculty, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
K. Crouse, His Term, Forever: Amen, New York Times. (2015) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture
ISSN (print)2588-8404

Other styles