How to format your references using the International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.T. Chait, Chemistry. Mass spectrometry: bottom-up or top-down?, Science. 314 (2006) 65–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.K. Praetorius, A.C. Mix, Paleoclimate. Synchronization of North Pacific and Greenland climates preceded abrupt deglacial warming, Science. 345 (2014) 444–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Zhao, S. Murray, J.J. Lipuma, Modeling the impact of antibiotic exposure on human microbiota, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4345.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Rozen, H. Skaletsky, J.D. Marszalek, P.J. Minx, H.S. Cordum, R.H. Waterston, R.K. Wilson, D.C. Page, Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes, Nature. 423 (2003) 873–876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Fingerloos, J. Hegger, K. Zilch, EUROCODE 2 für Deutschland, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2016.
An edited book
D. Siegel, H. Nelen, eds., Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies, Springer, New York, NY, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Fraillon, J. Ainley, W. Schulz, T. Friedman, E. Gebhardt, Students’ Computer and Information Literacy, in: J. Ainley, W. Schulz, T. Friedman, E. Gebhardt (Eds.), Preparing for Life in a Digital Age: The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study International Report, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 69–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Hype Around Cannabis As A Treatment For Cancer Is Undeserved, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Cuban Embargo: Selected Issues Relating to Travel, Exports, and Telecommunications, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.K. Bottorff, Evaluating summer school programs and the effect on student achievement: The correlation between Stanford-10 standardized test scores and two different summer programs, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J. de la MERCED, Spotify Is Said to Favor Direct Listing on N.Y.S.E. Over Public Offering, New York Times. (2017) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture
ISSN (print)2588-8404

Other styles