How to format your references using the International Journal of Lexicography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lexicography (IJL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pierrehumbert, R. T. 2004. ‘Warming the World’. Nature 432.7018: 677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petro, J. B. and D. A. Relman. 2003. ‘Public Health. Understanding Threats to Scientific Openness’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302.5652: 1898.
A journal article with 3 authors
Esper, J., E. R. Cook and F. H. Schweingruber. 2002. ‘Low-Frequency Signals in Long Tree-Ring Chronologies for Reconstructing Past Temperature Variability’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295.5563: 2250–2253.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tian, J., H. Gong, N. Sheng, X. Zhou, E. Gulari, X. Gao and G. Church. 2004. ‘Accurate Multiplex Gene Synthesis from Programmable DNA Microchips’. Nature 432.7020: 1050–1054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1995. Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Munk, R. (ed). 2011. Moses Mendelssohn’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics. . Vol. 13. (Studies in German Idealism). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Oquendo, F., J. Leite and T. Batista. 2016. ‘Specifying Behavior of Software Architectures’. In Leite, J. and T. Batista (eds), Software Architecture in Action: Designing and Executing Architectural Models with SysADL Grounded on the OMG SysML Standard. (Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science). Cham: Springer International Publishing, 65–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lexicography.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016. Arctic Sea Ice Is Failing To Grow At The Expected Rate. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. [Comments on Applicability of Vacancies Act to Various Labor and Education Officers]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nuñez, E. M. 2017. Getting H.I.P. with First-Generation College Students: Decolonizing the High Impact Practice Movement. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. 2011. ‘Scouting Report’. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pierrehumbert 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Pierrehumbert 2004, Petro and Relman 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petro and Relman 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tian … Church 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lexicography
ISSN (print)0950-3846
ISSN (online)1477-4577
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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