How to format your references using the International Journal of Lexicography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lexicography (IJL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwartzberg, P. L. 2001. ‘Immunology. Tampering with the Immune System’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293.5528: 228–229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cantalupo, C. and W. D. Hopkins. 2001. ‘Asymmetric Broca’s Area in Great Apes’. Nature 414.6863: 505.
A journal article with 3 authors
Staal, M., F. J. R. Meysman and L. J. Stal. 2003. ‘Temperature Excludes N2-Fixing Heterocystous Cyanobacteria in the Tropical Oceans’. Nature 425.6957: 504–507.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Makris, N. C., P. Ratilal, S. Jagannathan, Z. Gong, M. Andrews, I. Bertsatos, O. R. Godø, R. W. Nero and J. M. Jech. 2009. ‘Critical Population Density Triggers Rapid Formation of Vast Oceanic Fish Shoals’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323.5922: 1734–1737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulze, V. 2005. Modern Mechanical Surface Treatment. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Vijay, V. and R. Gopalakrishnan (eds). 2016. Herbal Insecticides, Repellents and Biomedicines: Effectiveness and Commercialization. 1st ed. 2016. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanescu, L., D. D. Burdescu, M. Brezovan and C. G. Mihai. 2012. ‘Ontologies’. In Burdescu, D. D., M. Brezovan and C. G. Mihai (eds), Creating New Medical Ontologies for Image Annotation: A Case Study. (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering). New York, NY: Springer, 45–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lexicography.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2015. Japanese Scientists Invent ‘Unbreakable’ Glass. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. NORAD’s Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Isaacson, M. J. 2009. The paradox of respect and risk: Six Lakota adolescents speak. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. 2015. ‘The Undoing of a Quiet Jet’. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schwartzberg 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Schwartzberg 2001, Cantalupo and Hopkins 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cantalupo and Hopkins 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Makris … Jech 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lexicography
ISSN (print)0950-3846
ISSN (online)1477-4577
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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