How to format your references using the International Journal of Lexicography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lexicography (IJL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. 2003. ‘Biologist Gets Minimum Sentence in “espionage” Case’. Nature 423.6940: 575.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sandeep, S. and R. S. Ajayamohan. 2014. ‘Origin of Cold Bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models’. Scientific reports 4: 6403.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich, T. H., P. Vickers-Rich and R. A. Gangloff. 2002. ‘Paleontology. Polar Dinosaurs’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295.5557: 979–980.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Frank, M. J., J. Samanta, A. A. Moustafa and S. J. Sherman. 2007. ‘Hold Your Horses: Impulsivity, Deep Brain Stimulation, and Medication in Parkinsonism’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318.5854: 1309–1312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society. 2013. Recommendations on Excavations EAB. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Allen, M., R. Mayes and D. Rixen (eds). 2014. Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. (Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Coosemans, T., J. Sanfélix, M. Messagie, J. Van Mierlo, A. Alves and G. Waymel. 2015. ‘Lightweight and Integrated Plastic Solutions for Power Battery Racks in Electric Vehicles’. In Briec, E. and B. Müller (eds), Electric Vehicle Batteries: Moving from Research towards Innovation: Reports of the PPP European Green Vehicles Initiative. (Lecture Notes in Mobility). Cham: Springer International Publishing, 61–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lexicography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Prominent Astronomy Professor Accused Of Repeatedly Sexually Harassing Students. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Highway Infrastructure: Federal Efforts to Strengthen Security Should Be Better Coordinated and Targeted on the Nation’s Most Critical Highway Infrastructure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggleston, B. P. 2014. An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, N. 2011. ‘New Directors Flesh Out Black America, All of It’. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski 2003, Sandeep and Ajayamohan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sandeep and Ajayamohan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Frank … Sherman 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lexicography
ISSN (print)0950-3846
ISSN (online)1477-4577
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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