How to format your references using the International Journal of Lexicography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lexicography (IJL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemker, K. J. 2004. ‘Materials Science. Understanding How Nanocrystalline Metals Deform’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304.5668: 221–223.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang, B.-L. and S. Mackem. 2014. ‘Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Use It or Lose It’. Nature 511.7507: 34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vilan, A., A. Shanzer and D. Cahen. 2000. ‘Molecular Control over Au/GaAs Diodes’. Nature 404.6774: 166–168.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Alessandrini, M., A. Micarelli, A. Chiaravalloti, M. Candidi, E. Bruno, B. Di Pietro, O. Schillaci and M. Pagani. 2014. ‘Cortico-Subcortical Metabolic Correlates of Olfactory Processing in Healthy Resting Subjects’. Scientific reports 4: 5146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C. 2014. Fatigue Damage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Blömeke, S., F.-J. Hsieh, G. Kaiser and W. H. Schmidt (eds). 2014. International Perspectives on Teacher Knowledge, Beliefs and Opportunities to Learn: TEDS-M Results. (Advances in Mathematics Education). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Newhouse, P. 2013. ‘Applied Information Technology’. In Williams, P. J. and C. P. Newhouse (eds), Digital Representations of Student Performance for Assessment. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 49–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lexicography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. Researchers discover how mosquitos locate hosts’ skin for feeding. IFLScience. IFLScience. (30 October, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Education and Workforce Data: Challenges in Matching Student and Worker Information Raise Concerns about Longitudinal Data Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baggio, B. G. 2008. Integrating social software into blended -learning courses: A Delphi study of instructional -design processes. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University Doctoral dissertation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. 2010. ‘Scouting Report’. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hemker 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hemker 2004, Huang and Mackem 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang and Mackem 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Alessandrini … Pagani 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lexicography
ISSN (print)0950-3846
ISSN (online)1477-4577
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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