How to format your references using the Inflammation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Heilbron JL. History: The path to the quantum atom. Nature. 2013;498:27–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tierney JE, deMenocal PB. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate since the Last Glacial Maximum. Science. 2013;342:843–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pettifer RF, Collins SP, Laundy D. Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy. Nature. 2008;454:196–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kong XY, Ding Y, Yang R, Wang ZL. Single-crystal nanorings formed by epitaxial self-coiling of polar nanobelts. Science. 2004;303:1348–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hadjsaïd N, Sabonnadière J-C. Power Systems and Restructuring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Verdone R, editor. Wireless Sensor Networks: 5th European Conference, EWSN 2008, Bologna, Italy, January 30-February 1, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Homnick DN. Dyspnea. In: Anbar RD, editor. Functional Respiratory Disorders: When Respiratory Symptoms Do Not Respond to Pulmonary Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2012. p. 67–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation Research.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Earthquake Detectors Pick Up Epic “Weather Bomb” On Other Side Of The World [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Information on the Advanced Technology Program’s 1997 Award Selection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Feb. Report No.: RCED-98-82R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Banerjee S. A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. Hall Quits ‘Today’ and NBC With Kelly Waiting Offstage. New York Times. 2017 Feb 1;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation Research
AbbreviationInflamm. Res.
ISSN (print)1023-3830
ISSN (online)1420-908X

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