How to format your references using the Inflammation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Insel TR. Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature. 2010;468:187–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bays PM, Husain M. Response to Comment on “Dynamic Shifts of Limited Working Memory Resources in Human Vision.” Science. 2009;323:877.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Vendrasco MJ, Wood TE, Runnegar BN. Articulated Palaeozoic fossil with 17 plates greatly expands disparity of early chitons. Nature. 2004;429:288–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stevenson S, Fowler PW, Heine T, Duchamp JC, Rice G, Glass T, et al. A stable non-classical metallofullerene family. Nature. 2000;408:427–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tagliamonte SA. Making Waves. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Girbau J. Stability by Linearization of Einstein’s Field Equation. Bruna L, editor. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Augl M. Building a Conceptual Roadmap for Systemic Change – A Novel Approach to Change Management in Expert Organizations in Health Care. In: Stary C, editor. S-BPM ONE – Scientific Research: 4th International Conference, S-BPM ONE 2012, Vienna, Austria, April 4-5, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 43–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. It Turns Out There’s Truth To ‘Dead Battery Bounce’ After All [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Army Budget: Potential Reductions to Budget Requests for Selected ADP Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-88-43BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grimpo M. How asthma is related with the rate of influenza vaccination in California’s children [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chen DW, Walsh MW. City’s System for Pensions Shows Strain. New York Times. 2014 Aug 4;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation Research
AbbreviationInflamm. Res.
ISSN (print)1023-3830
ISSN (online)1420-908X

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