How to format your references using the Inflammation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Robinson CV. Women in science: In pursuit of female chemists. Nature. 2011;476:273–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Butz WP, Torrey BB. Some frontiers in social science. Science. 2006;312:1898–900.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhang K, Zhang Y, Wang S. Enhancing thermoelectric properties of organic composites through hierarchical nanostructures. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3448.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kapitaniak M, Lazarek M, Nielaczny M, Czolczynski K, Perlikowski P, Kapitaniak T. Synchronization extends the life time of the desired behavior of globally coupled systems. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4391.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ryan TP. Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement: Ryan/Quality Improvement 3E. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Ryugo DK, Fay RR, editors. Auditory and Vestibular Efferents. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Vehlow A, Storch K, Matzke D, Cordes N. Molecular Targeting of Integrins and Integrin-Associated Signaling Networks in Radiation Oncology. In: Baumann M, Krause M, Cordes N, editors. Molecular Radio-Oncology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 89–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation Research.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Century Old Heart Attack Treatment Challenged [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Postsecondary Education: Financial Trends in Public and Private Nonprofit Institutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jan. Report No.: GAO-12-179.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Miranda PJ. Tightly-coupled sulfur-cycling microbial mats of the White Point hydrothermal vent field, CA: An analog for deep-sea vents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gorman J. Naked Mole Rats Survive Without Oxygen. New York Times. 2017 Apr 20;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation Research
AbbreviationInflamm. Res.
ISSN (print)1023-3830
ISSN (online)1420-908X

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