How to format your references using the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eichenbaum, H., 2010. Neuroscience. Dedicated to memory? Science 330, 1331–1332.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, C.R., Baker, L.A., 2005. Materials science. Expanding the molecular electronics toolbox. Science 309, 67–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bintanja, R., van de Wal, R.S.W., Oerlemans, J., 2005. Modelled atmospheric temperatures and global sea levels over the past million years. Nature 437, 125–128.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Block, M., Ackermann, D., Blaum, K., Droese, C., Dworschak, M., Eliseev, S., Fleckenstein, T., Haettner, E., Herfurth, F., Hessberger, F.P., Hofmann, S., Ketelaer, J., Ketter, J., Kluge, H.-J., Marx, G., Mazzocco, M., Novikov, Y.N., Plass, W.R., Popeko, A., Rahaman, S., Rodríguez, D., Scheidenberger, C., Schweikhard, L., Thirolf, P.G., Vorobyev, G.K., Weber, C., 2010. Direct mass measurements above uranium bridge the gap to the island of stability. Nature 463, 785–788.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitrapu, P., 2005. Wideband TDD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ciobanu, G., Păun, G., Pérez-Jiménez, M.J. (Eds.), 2006. Applications of Membrane Computing, Natural Computing Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Le Pécheur, M., Morrow, G., Tanguay, R.M., 2012. Mortalin and Drosophila DmHsp22: Two Mitochondrial Chaperones Regulating Aging and Carcinogenesis, in: Kaul, S.C., Wadhwa, R. (Eds.), Mortalin Biology: Life, Stress and Death. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 83–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. A Blob And A Bubble Tell Us The History Of A Supermassive Black Hole [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Student Loans: Oversight of Servicemembers’ Interest Rate Cap Could Be Strengthened (No. GAO-17-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yamada, T., 2008. Comparison of cognitively diagnostic adaptive testing algorithms (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Duerden, J., 2017. Qatar’s World Cup Résumé: Zero Games; 2022 Host. New York Times SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eichenbaum, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Eichenbaum, 2010; Martin and Baker, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Baker, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Block et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Law Crime Justice
ISSN (print)1756-0616
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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