How to format your references using the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colquhoun, D., 2007. Science degrees without the science. Nature 446, 373–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wassarman, K.M., Saecker, R.M., 2006. Synthesis-mediated release of a small RNA inhibitor of RNA polymerase. Science 314, 1601–1603.
A journal article with 3 authors
Desai, S.A., Bezrukov, S.M., Zimmerberg, J., 2000. A voltage-dependent channel involved in nutrient uptake by red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite. Nature 406, 1001–1005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, W.H., Gu, Z., Wang, H., Nekrutenko, A., 2001. Evolutionary analyses of the human genome. Nature 409, 847–849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prydie, D., Hewitt, I., 2015. Practical Physiotherapy for Small Animal Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Islam, S.M.N., 2009. Performance Measurement in Corporate Governance: DEA Modelling and Implications for Organisational Behaviour and Supply Chain Management, Contributions to Management Science. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Postema, P.G., Christiaans, I., Hofman, N., Alders, M., Koopmann, T.T., Bezzina, C.R., Loh, P., Zeppenfeld, K., Volders, P.G.A., Wilde, A.A.M., 2014. Founder mutations in the Netherlands: familial idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and DPP6*, in: Wilde, Arthur A. M., Tintelen, J.P. van (Eds.), Founder Mutations in Inherited Cardiac Diseases in the Netherlands. Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, Houten, pp. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. First Quantum Coherence In Biological Molecule [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Procurement Equipment for New York Postal Data Center (No. B-180235). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, E., 2017. Assessing the Well-Being Koreans and Korean Americans: Psychometric Validation Study for a Multidimensional Assessment of Well-Being (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2016. Found in Translation. New York Times BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ploegh, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Caron, 2013; Winnacker, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wassarman and Saecker, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Araki et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Law Crime Justice
ISSN (print)1756-0616
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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