How to format your references using the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perez, D.R., 2012. Public health and biosecurity. H5N1 debates: hung up on the wrong questions. Science 335, 799–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helms, B., Meijer, E.W., 2006. Chemistry. Dendrimers at work. Science 313, 929–930.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goebel, T., Waters, M.R., Dikova, M., 2003. The archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Science 301, 501–505.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Balasubramanian, B., Mukherjee, P., Skomski, R., Manchanda, P., Das, B., Sellmyer, D.J., 2014. Magnetic nanostructuring and overcoming Brown’s paradox to realize extraordinary high-temperature energy products. Sci. Rep. 4, 6265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunter, D.A., 2014. A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Serdyukov, P., Braslavski, P., Kuznetsov, S.O., Kamps, J., Rüger, S., Agichtein, E., Segalovich, I., Yilmaz, E. (Eds.), 2013. Advances in Information Retrieval: 35th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2013, Moscow, Russia, March 24-27, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Karch, M., 2010. Managing Texting, in: Anglin, S., Pundick, D., Andres, C., Beckner, M., Buckingham, E., Cornell, G., Gennick, J., Hassell, J., Lowman, M., Moodie, M., Parkes, D., Pepper, J., Pohlmann, F., Renow-Clarke, B., Shakeshaft, D., Wade, M., Welsh, T., Tobin, M., Larson, D. (Eds.), Android for Work: Productivity for Professionals. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. Scientists Have Finally Figured Out Why Flamingoes Stand On One Leg [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Research and Development: Funding of Jet Aircraft Engines for Fiscal Years 1984-1988 (No. NSIAD-89-12FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Szurley, J.C., 2010. The use of edge detection techniques to analyze thoracoabdominal movement and infer breathing volume (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2017. While Nashville Parties, the Predators Cut Loose. New York Times SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perez, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Helms and Meijer, 2006; Perez, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helms and Meijer, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Balasubramanian et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Law Crime Justice
ISSN (print)1756-0616
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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