How to format your references using the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Begley, C.G., 2013. Six red flags for suspect work. Nature 497, 433–434.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matzke, M., Matzke, A.J.M., 2003. RNAi extends its reach. Science 301, 1060–1061.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ambrose, K.V., Koppenhöfer, A.M., Belanger, F.C., 2014. Horizontal gene transfer of a bacterial insect toxin gene into the Epichloë fungal symbionts of grasses. Sci. Rep. 4, 5562.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, J.-W., Kang, Y.-W., Lee, J., Lee, Y.-W., 2009. Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations. Nature 462, 480–482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
American Counseling Association, 2015. The ACA Encyclopedia of Counseling. American Counseling Association, Alexandria, VA, USA.
An edited book
Arora, N.K. (Ed.), 2013. Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Advances. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Hundt, R., 2013. From Carbon to Clean—How to Attract Investment in Smart Grid Infrastructures, in: Noam, E.M., Pupillo, L.M., Kranz, J.J. (Eds.), Broadband Networks, Smart Grids and Climate Change. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. No, Chocolate Probably Won’t Protect You From Heart Disease and Stroke [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-01-384R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner, I., 2017. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002. A New 92nd Street Y? Almost. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Begley, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Begley, 2013; Matzke and Matzke, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matzke and Matzke, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Law Crime Justice
ISSN (print)1756-0616
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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