How to format your references using the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, D., 2000. UK ethicists back use of stem cells. Nature 404, 697.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman, J.S., Walter, M.A., 2002. Biomedicine. Under pressure. Science 295, 983–984.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldman, Y.E., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Armstrong, C.M., 2012. Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917-2012). Nature 486, 474.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sargolini, F., Fyhn, M., Hafting, T., McNaughton, B.L., Witter, M.P., Moser, M.-B., Moser, E.I., 2006. Conjunctive representation of position, direction, and velocity in entorhinal cortex. Science 312, 758–762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mynbaev, K.T., 2011. Short-Memory Linear Processes and Econometric Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Karl, H.A., Scarlett, L., Vargas-Moreno, J.C., Flaxman, M. (Eds.), 2012. Restoring Lands - Coordinating Science, Politics and Action: Complexities of Climate and Governance. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Ci, J., 2010. Redeeming Freedom, in: Hooft, S. van, Vandekerckhove, W. (Eds.), Questioning Cosmopolitanism, Studies in Global Justice. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Watch The Perseid Meteor Shower Online [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Information System Security in Federal Civilian Agencies (No. T-IMTEC-87-7). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crider, M.C., 2012. The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2006. In Moscow, A Museum Shows Off Its Stars. New York Times E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson, 2000; Friedman and Walter, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman and Walter, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Sargolini et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Law Crime Justice
ISSN (print)1756-0616
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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