How to format your references using the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richmond, C.R., 2000. How neptunium led to the birth of plutonium. Nature 406, 455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bakkenist, C.J., Kastan, M.B., 2003. DNA damage activates ATM through intermolecular autophosphorylation and dimer dissociation. Nature 421, 499–506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmitz, D., Mellor, J., Nicoll, R.A., 2001. Presynaptic kainate receptor mediation of frequency facilitation at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Science 291, 1972–1976.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ernstorfer, R., Harb, M., Hebeisen, C.T., Sciaini, G., Dartigalongue, T., Miller, R.J.D., 2009. The formation of warm dense matter: experimental evidence for electronic bond hardening in gold. Science 323, 1033–1037.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb, K., 2008. The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Brodnik, A., Vahrenhold, J. (Eds.), 2015. Informatics in Schools. Curricula, Competences, and Competitions: 8th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution, and Perspectives, ISSEP 2015, Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 28 - October 1, 2015, Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Diercks, G.F.H., Pas, H.H., 2016. Direct Immunofluorescence Microscopy, in: Jonkman, M.F. (Ed.), Autoimmune Bullous Diseases: Text and Review. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 39–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. How NASA Is Preparing For Missions To Mars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. FAA Financial Management: Further Actions Needed to Achieve Asset Accountability (No. AIMD-99-212). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poyaoan-Linzaga, M.R., 2014. The effects of patient communication in early intervention for falls among the Medicare patients (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Step Down to Step Up. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Richmond, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bakkenist and Kastan, 2003; Richmond, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bakkenist and Kastan, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ernstorfer et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Law Crime Justice
ISSN (print)1756-0616
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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