How to format your references using the International Journal of Industrial Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Industrial Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chase, J.M., 2010. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328, 1388–1391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wade, J., Wood, B.J., 2001. The Earth’s “missing” niobium may be in the core. Nature 409, 75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daniel, S., Chaudhury, M.K., Chen, J.C., 2001. Fast drop movements resulting from the phase change on a gradient surface. Science 291, 633–636.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jarillo, J.A., Gabrys, H., Capel, J., Alonso, J.M., Ecker, J.R., Cashmore, A.R., 2001. Phototropin-related NPL1 controls chloroplast relocation induced by blue light. Nature 410, 952–954.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sadati, N., Dumont, G.A., Hamed, K.A., Gruver, W.A., 2012. Hybrid Control and Motion Planning of Dynamical Legged Locomotion. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chen, W., 2014. Recent Advances in Radial Basis Function Collocation Methods, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickett, C.A., Villines, T.C., Taylor, A.J., 2013. Auscultation and Atherosclerosis, in: Taylor, A.J., Villines, T.C. (Eds.), Atherosclerosis: Clinical Perspectives Through Imaging. Springer, London, pp. 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Industrial Organization.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Stunning New Photos Of Antares Rocket Explosion Released By NASA [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Intercity Passenger Rail: Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Amtrak’s Long-Term Viability (No. RCED-95-71). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skinner, M., 2008. Enamel -dentine junction morphology of extant hominoid and fossil hominin lower molars (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S., Corkery, M., 2017. After Scandal, Wells Fargo’s Board Faces a Contentious Re-election Vote. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chase, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Chase, 2010; Wade and Wood, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wade and Wood, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Jarillo et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Industrial Organization
AbbreviationInt. J. Ind. Organ.
ISSN (print)0167-7187
ScopeStrategy and Management
Industrial relations
Aerospace Engineering
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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