How to format your references using the International Journal of Industrial Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Industrial Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huang, L.E., 2013. Biochemistry. How HIF-1α handles stress. Science 339, 1285–1286.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wasserman, S.A., DiNardo, S., 2001. Development. Staying a boy forever. Science 294, 2495–2497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levey, D.J., Duncan, R.S., Levins, C.F., 2004. Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls. Nature 431, 39.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huber, R., Ghilardi, M.F., Massimini, M., Tononi, G., 2004. Local sleep and learning. Nature 430, 78–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuus, M., 2013. Geopolitics and Expertise. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Jain, L.C., Palade, V., Srinivasan, D. (Eds.), 2007. Advances in Evolutionary Computing for System Design, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Skyrms, B., 2006. Discovering “Weight, or the Value of Knowledge,” in: Galavotti, M.C. (Ed.), Cambridge and Vienna: Frank P. Ramsey and the Vienna Circle, Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook [2004]. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Industrial Organization.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. The Giant Panda Is No Longer Considered “Endangered” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Improving Federal Performance in the Information Age: Issues and Opportunities--Fiscal Years 1996-98 (No. IAP-95-29). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanza, K.M., 2008. The antecedents of automotive brand loyalty and repurchase intentions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smale, A., Erlanger, S., 2017. Wary of Trump, Merkel Doubts U.S. Is Solid Ally. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayer, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Blumenthal, 2013; Collis, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wasserman and DiNardo, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Aryan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Industrial Organization
AbbreviationInt. J. Ind. Organ.
ISSN (print)0167-7187
ScopeStrategy and Management
Industrial relations
Aerospace Engineering
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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