How to format your references using the International Journal of Impact Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Impact Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife C. PHYSICS: Will NIF Live Up to Its Name? Science 2000;289:1128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuji K, Tsutani K. Follow the leader. Nature 2008;453:851–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khudiyev T, Tobail O, Bayindir M. Tailoring self-organized nanostructured morphologies in kilometer-long polymer fiber. Sci Rep 2014;4:4864.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang J, Zhao Y, Xu C, Hong Y, Lu H, Wu J, et al. Association between serum free fatty acid levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study. Sci Rep 2014;4:5832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandrea N, Stănescu N-D. Dynamics of the Rigid Solid with General Constraints by a Multibody Approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Pant M, Deep K, Nagar A, Bansal JC, editors. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving: SocProS 2013, Volume 1. vol. 258. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Kreuzer M, Robbiano L. Zero-Dimensional Affine Algebras. In: Robbiano L, editor. Computational Linear and Commutative Algebra, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 131–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Impact Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. High-Fat Diet Made Inuits Healthier But Shorter Thanks To Gene Mutations, Study Finds. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Streamlining FHA’s Single Family Housing Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thom RC. Digital Martyrs and Shadowless Assailants: The Projective Shadow’s Emergence in Cyberspace. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. In a 6-to-3 Vote, Justices Uphold A Voter ID Law. New York Times 2008:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Impact Engineering
AbbreviationInt. J. Impact Eng.
ISSN (print)0734-743X
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Automotive Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Ocean Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Other styles