How to format your references using the International Journal of Impact Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Impact Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman M. US blood ban underlines CJD fears. Nature 2001;412:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tham W-H, Kennedy AT. Malaria: a master lock for deadly parasites. Nature 2015;522:158–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sereno MI, Pitzalis S, Martinez A. Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans. Science 2001;294:1350–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stamper CC, Zhang Y, Tobin JF, Erbe DV, Ikemizu S, Davis SJ, et al. Crystal structure of the B7-1/CTLA-4 complex that inhibits human immune responses. Nature 2001;410:608–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheng VS, Tong JC. Building Sustainability in East Asia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
O’Connor RV, Baddoo N, Smolander K, Messnarz R, editors. Software Process Improvement: 15th European Conference, EuroSPI 2008, Dublin, Ireland, September 3-5, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 16. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Mehta G, Deelman E, Knowles JA, Chen T, Wang Y, Vöckler J, et al. Enabling Data and Compute Intensive Workflows in Bioinformatics. In: Alexander M, D’Ambra P, Belloum A, Bosilca G, Cannataro M, Danelutto M, et al., editors. Euro-Par 2011: Parallel Processing Workshops: CCPI, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, HPCVirt, HPPC, HPSS, MDGS, ProPer, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Bordeaux, France, August 29 – September 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 23–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Impact Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton K. World’s Oldest Muscle-Fibre Fossil Reveals The Origin Of Legs. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Protection Agency: Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles--Tier 2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kurum M. L-band estimation of forest canopy attenuation by a time-domain analysis of radar backscatter response. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kirk -- Sophia, Mawr B. HASTE: Aid to Britain. New York Times 1941:REVIEW OF THE WEEK EDITORIALSE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Impact Engineering
AbbreviationInt. J. Impact Eng.
ISSN (print)0734-743X
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Automotive Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Ocean Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Other styles