How to format your references using the International Journal of Geomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F. 2002. “American Chemical Society meeting. Science invades the Magic Kingdom.” Science, 296 (5567): 462–463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freedman, D. J., and J. A. Assad. 2006. “Experience-dependent representation of visual categories in parietal cortex.” Nature, 443 (7107): 85–88.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giles, S., M. Friedman, and M. D. Brazeau. 2015. “Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome.” Nature, 520 (7545): 82–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun, Y., J. Liu, T. Sun, X. Zhang, J. Yao, M. Kai, X. Jiang, and R. Wang. 2014. “Anti-cancer small molecule JP-8g exhibits potent in vivo anti-inflammatory activity.” Sci. Rep., 4: 4372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dodson, B., P. C. Hammett, and R. Klerx. 2014. Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chetouani, M., A. Hussain, B. Gas, M. Milgram, and J.-L. Zarader (Eds.). 2007. Advances in Nonlinear Speech Processing: International Conference on Non-Linear Speech Processing, NOLISP 2007 Paris, France, May 22-25, 2007 Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wan, M., A. Jönsson, C. Wang, L. Li, and Y. Yang. 2012. “A Random Indexing Approach for Web User Clustering and Web Prefetching.” New Frontiers in Applied Data Mining: PAKDD 2011 International Workshops, Shenzhen, China, May 24-27, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, L. Cao, J. Z. Huang, J. Bailey, Y. S. Koh, and J. Luo, eds., 40–52. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geomechanics.

Blog post
Felton, J. 2017. “This Guy Stopped The Biggest Ransomware Attack In History. This Was His Reward ..” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Telecommunications: States’ Collection and Use of Funds for Wireless Enhanced 911 Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chiu, Y.-Y. L. 2012. “Multicultural educational policies: A correlational investigation of cultural competencies and feelings of inclusion.” Doctoral dissertation. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K. 2017. “Foes Get Together, and No One’s Fighting Like ….” New York Times, February 12, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Freedman and Assad 2006; Service 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freedman and Assad 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geomechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Geomech.
ISSN (print)1532-3641
ISSN (online)1943-5622
ScopeSoil Science

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