# How to format your references using the International Journal of Geomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). “Talent tug-of-war.” Nature, 417(6887), 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stein, E., and Tessier-Lavigne, M. (2001). “Hierarchical organization of guidance receptors: silencing of netrin attraction by slit through a Robo/DCC receptor complex.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5510), 1928–1938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wible, B., Mervis, J., and Wigginton, N. S. (2014). “The global supply chain. Rethinking the global supply chain. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6188), 1100–1103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Podsypanina, K., Du, Y.-C. N., Jechlinger, M., Beverly, L. J., Hambardzumyan, D., and Varmus, H. (2008). “Seeding and propagation of untransformed mouse mammary cells in the lung.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5897), 1841–1844.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koch, S. N., Torres, S. M. F., and Plumb, D. C. (2012). Canine and Feline Dermatology Drug Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Ali, M., and Dapoigny, R. (Eds.). (2006). Advances in Applied Artificial Intelligence: 19th International Conference on Industrial, Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2006, Annecy, France, June 27-30, 2006. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Barbasch, D., and Ciubotaru, D. (2015). “Ladder representations of GL ( n , ℚ p ) $$\mathrm{GL}(n, \mathbb{Q}_{p})$$.” Representations of Reductive Groups: In Honor of the 60th Birthday of David A. Vogan, Jr, Progress in Mathematics, M. Nevins and P. E. Trapa, eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 117–137.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). “Brains, Genes And Chemical Imbalances – How Explanations Of Mental Illness Affect Stigma.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <https://www.iflscience.com/brain/brains-genes-and-chemical-imbalances-–-how-explanations-mental-illness-affect-stigma/&#62; (Oct. 30, 2018).

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Impact of Illegal Aliens on Public Assistance Programs: Too Little Is Known. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Antoshin, S. (2010). “Modeling inflation expectations in the U.K.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). “Bright, Brassy and All Bette.” New York Times, C1.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Stein and Tessier-Lavigne 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

• Two authors: (Stein and Tessier-Lavigne 2001)
• Three or more authors: (Podsypanina et al. 2008)