How to format your references using the International Journal of Geomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tymoczko, D. 2006. “The geometry of musical chords.” Science, 313 (5783): 72–74.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baconguis, I., and E. Gouaux. 2012. “Structural plasticity and dynamic selectivity of acid-sensing ion channel-spider toxin complexes.” Nature, 489 (7416): 400–405.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keith, D. W., E. Parson, and M. G. Morgan. 2010. “Research on global sun block needed now.” Nature, 463 (7280): 426–427.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Suo, S.-B., J.-D. Qiu, S.-P. Shi, X. Chen, and R.-P. Liang. 2014. “PSEA: Kinase-specific prediction and analysis of human phosphorylation substrates.” Sci. Rep., 4: 4524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meinert, C. L. 2012. Clinical Trials Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Margottini, C., P. Canuti, and K. Sassa (Eds.). 2013. Landslide Science and Practice: Volume 5: Complex Environment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Althaus, A. L., and J. M. Parent. 2014. “Role of Adult Neurogenesis in Seizure-Induced Hippocampal Remodeling and Epilepsy.” Endogenous Stem Cell-Based Brain Remodeling in Mammals, Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, M.-P. Junier and S. G. Kernie, eds., 87–104. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geomechanics.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015. “Doubt Cast On ‘Young Blood’ Anti-Aging Protein.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Grumman Corporation Computer Software Development Costs and Licensing Fees Paid by the Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morikawa, T. 2010. “Aerodynamic analysis of an over-the-wing engine-mount aircraft.” Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ember, S. 2017. “An Era’s End.” New York Times, September 18, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tymoczko 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Baconguis and Gouaux 2012; Tymoczko 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baconguis and Gouaux 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Suo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geomechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Geomech.
ISSN (print)1532-3641
ISSN (online)1943-5622
ScopeSoil Science

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