How to format your references using the International Journal of Geomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klemperer, W. (2001). “Astronomy. The complex story of H2.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5531), 815–816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quasdorf, K. W., and Overman, L. E. (2014). “Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocentres.” Nature, 516(7530), 181–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martinson, B. C., Anderson, M. S., and de Vries, R. (2005). “Scientists behaving badly.” Nature, 435(7043), 737–738.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woo, P. C. Y., Lam, C.-W., Tam, E. W. T., Lee, K.-C., Yung, K. K. Y., Leung, C. K. F., Sze, K.-H., Lau, S. K. P., and Yuen, K.-Y. (2014). “The biosynthetic pathway for a thousand-year-old natural food colorant and citrinin in Penicillium marneffei.” Scientific reports, 4, 6728.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann, K. (2005). System Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Rocchia, W., and Spagnuolo, M. (Eds.). (2015). Computational Electrostatics for Biological Applications: Geometric and Numerical Approaches to the Description of Electrostatic Interaction Between Macromolecules. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Klein, J., and Klein, N. (2013). “The Third Decade: The Vow.” Solitude of a Humble Genius - Gregor Johann Mendel: Volume 1: Formative Years, N. Klein, ed., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 191–266.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geomechanics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). “Protein That Can Edit Other Proteins Without DNA Blueprint Discovered.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships Needed to Mitigate Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bratton, K. J. (2014). “Modeling and Control of Heterogeneous Tumors Under Chemotherapy.” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003). “A Bus Stop May Disappear, And Some Old Bones Groan.” New York Times, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klemperer 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Klemperer 2001; Quasdorf and Overman 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quasdorf and Overman 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Woo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geomechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Geomech.
ISSN (print)1532-3641
ISSN (online)1943-5622
ScopeSoil Science

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