How to format your references using the International Journal of Geomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2002). “China ponders joining fusion project.” Nature, 419(6907), 545.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, L. W., and Roberts, B. (2005). “Bacterial immunity traded for sperm viability in male crickets.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5743), 2031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naeem, S., Duffy, J. E., and Zavaleta, E. (2012). “The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6087), 1401–1406.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pearthree, P. A., Spencer, J. E., Faulds, J. E., and House, P. K. (2008). “Comment on ‘Age and evolution of the Grand Canyon revealed by U-Pb dating of water table-type speleothems.’” Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5896), 1634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hong, G. (2015). Causality in a Social World. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chowdri, N. A., and Parray, F. Q. (Eds.). (2016). Benign Anorectal Disorders: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Shin, I., Kim, M., and Choo, H. (2008). “On Generating Backbone Trees through Robust Multi-hop Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks.” Computer-Human Interaction: 8th Asia-Pacific Conference, APCHI 2008 Seoul, Korea, July 6-9, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, S. Lee, H. Choo, S. Ha, and I. C. Shin, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 30–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). “Intelligent Life In The Universe? Phone Home, Dammit!” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1992. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duncan, E. A. (2017). “Environmental controls of black abalone body temperature determine risks of thermal stress and disease.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002). “One Week of Silent Soccer Seems to Be Quite Enough.” New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2002; Simmons and Roberts 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons and Roberts 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Pearthree et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geomechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Geomech.
ISSN (print)1532-3641
ISSN (online)1943-5622
ScopeSoil Science

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