How to format your references using the International Journal of Geomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matzke, N. J. 2016. “The evolution of antievolution policies after Kitzmiller versus Dover.” Science, 351 (6268): 28–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymo, M. E., and P. Huybers. 2008. “Unlocking the mysteries of the ice ages.” Nature, 451 (7176): 284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Templeton, C. N., E. Greene, and K. Davis. 2005. “Allometry of alarm calls: black-capped chickadees encode information about predator size.” Science, 308 (5730): 1934–1937.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lucas, R. J., S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, and K.-W. Yau. 2003. “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice.” Science, 299 (5604): 245–247.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P. I. 2006. A Manager’s Guide to the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scherer, P. 2010. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics. Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, (S. F. Fischer, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kinsley, H., and W. McGugan. 2015. “Creating Visuals.” Beginning Python Games Development: With Pygame, W. McGugan, ed., 61–81. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. “The Science of the Obesity Epidemic.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. 2020 Census: Key Information Technology Decisions Must Be Made Soon. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, M. C. 2008. “Autonomy in occupational health nursing: An application of Abbott’s Theory of Professions.” Doctoral dissertation. New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. 2010. “Comic-Book Heroes Drawn From Reality.” New York Times, July 29, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matzke 2016).
This sentence cites two references (Matzke 2016; Raymo and Huybers 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raymo and Huybers 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lucas et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geomechanics
AbbreviationInt. J. Geomech.
ISSN (print)1532-3641
ISSN (online)1943-5622
ScopeSoil Science

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