How to format your references using the International Journal of General Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of General Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schlosshauer, Maximilian. 2008. “Lifting the Fog from the North.” Nature 453 (7191): 39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gabaldón, Toni, and Martijn A. Huynen. 2003. “Reconstruction of the Proto-Mitochondrial Metabolism.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5633): 609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland, Richard A., Martin Wikelski, and David S. Wilcove. 2006. “How and Why Do Insects Migrate?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 794–796.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
David, P., T. Bjorksten, K. Fowler, and A. Pomiankowski. 2000. “Condition-Dependent Signalling of Genetic Variation in Stalk-Eyed Flies.” Nature 406 (6792): 186–188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Godula-Jopek, Agata, Walter Jehle, and Jörg Wellnitz. 2012. Hydrogen Storage Technologies. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
de Souza, Gilberto Francisco Martha, ed. 2012. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis. Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Puzio, Leszek, and James F. Peters. 2013. “Nearness of Subtly Different Digital Images.” In Transactions on Rough Sets XVI, edited by James F. Peters, Andrzej Skowron, Sheela Ramanna, Zbigniew Suraj, and Xin Wang, 73–82. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of General Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Pregnancy: Cooperative Paradise Or Conflict-Driven Battle Between Mother And Child?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. FAA Air Traffic Controller Staffing and Related Issues. T-RCED-87-42. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gordon, Reyna Leigh. 2010. “Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Song Prosody.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Wheeler and Gsellman Join the Mets’ Rotation.” New York Times, March 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schlosshauer 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Schlosshauer 2008; Gabaldón and Huynen 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gabaldón and Huynen 2003)
  • Three authors: (Holland, Wikelski, and Wilcove 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (David et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of General Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Gen. Syst.
ISSN (print)0308-1079
ISSN (online)1563-5104
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Control and Systems Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

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