How to format your references using the International Journal of General Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of General Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, Derek J. 2006. “Predictability and Preparedness in Influenza Control.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5772): 392–394.
A journal article with 2 authors
Udvardi, Michael K., and Wolf-Rüdiger Scheible. 2005. “Plant Science. GRAS Genes and the Symbiotic Green Revolution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5729): 1749–1750.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fujisawa, Kazuko, Jeffrey L. Wrana, and Joseph G. Culotti. 2007. “The Slit Receptor EVA-1 Coactivates a SAX-3/Robo Mediated Guidance Signal in C. Elegans.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5846): 1934–1938.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cuervo, Ana Maria, Leonidas Stefanis, Ross Fredenburg, Peter T. Lansbury, and David Sulzer. 2004. “Impaired Degradation of Mutant Alpha-Synuclein by Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5688): 1292–1295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coates, Mark, and Brian Jenkins. 2010. Electrical Installation Calculations: For Compliance with BS 7671:2008. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Morrison, Ron, Dharini Balasubramaniam, and Katrina Falkner, eds. 2008. Software Architecture: Second European Conference, ECSA 2008 Paphos, Cyprus, September 29-October 1, 2008 Proceedings. Vol. 5292. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kubler, Sylvain, William Derigent, Éric Rondeau, André Thomas, and Kary Främling. 2013. “Embedded Data on Intelligent Products – Impact on Real-Time Applications.” In Trends in Mobile Web Information Systems: MobiWIS 2013 International Workshops, Paphos, Cyprus, August 26-28, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Maristella Matera and Gustavo Rossi, 25–34. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of General Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Gene Therapy Reverses Muscular Disease Symptoms In Mice.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Examination of the Treatment of Peer Reviewers’ Comments on Support for the “Individualized Science Instructional System” Project. MWD-76-78. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brasseaux, Shawn. 2015. “The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and Land Changes in Louisiana Deltaic Plain, Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson, James. 2017. “Being and Gnarliness.” New York Times, August 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2006; Udvardi and Scheible 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Udvardi and Scheible 2005)
  • Three authors: (Fujisawa, Wrana, and Culotti 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Cuervo et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of General Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Gen. Syst.
ISSN (print)0308-1079
ISSN (online)1563-5104
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Control and Systems Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles