How to format your references using the International Journal of General Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of General Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beverley, Stephen M. 2015. “Parasitology: CRISPR for Cryptosporidium.” Nature 523 (7561): 413–414.
A journal article with 2 authors
Namouni, Faith, and Carolyn Porco. 2002. “The Confinement of Neptune’s Ring Arcs by the Moon Galatea.” Nature 417 (6884): 45–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Runnels, L. W., L. Yue, and D. E. Clapham. 2001. “TRP-PLIK, a Bifunctional Protein with Kinase and Ion Channel Activities.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5506): 1043–1047.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tian, Dacheng, Qiang Wang, Pengfei Zhang, Hitoshi Araki, Sihai Yang, Martin Kreitman, Thomas Nagylaki, Richard Hudson, Joy Bergelson, and Jian-Qun Chen. 2008. “Single-Nucleotide Mutation Rate Increases Close to Insertions/Deletions in Eukaryotes.” Nature 455 (7209): 105–108.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silk, Roger D., and James W. Lintott. 2011. Managing Foundations and Charitable Trusts. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yen, Elizabeth H., and Amanda Radmer Leonard, eds. 2015. Nutrition in Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Clinicians. 1st ed. 2015. Nutrition and Health. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gohlke, M., J. F. Beaudoin, M. Amielh, and F. Anselmet. 2009. “Effect of Unsteady Separation on an Automotive Bluff-Body in Cross-Wind.” In IUTAM Symposium on Unsteady Separated Flows and Their Control: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium “Unsteady Separated Flows and Their Control“, Corfu, Greece, 18–22 June 2007, edited by Marianna Braza and Kerry Hourigan, 35–46. IUTAM Bookseries. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of General Systems.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Castro’s Cuban Crocodiles At Risk Of Interbreeding.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Railroad Safety: Reporting Time Frames and Results of Post-Accident Drug Tests. RCED-88-120. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Himschoot, Agnes Rose. 2012. “Student Perception of Relevance of Biology Content to Everyday Life: A Study in Higher Education Biology Courses.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, Linda. 2013. “Art You Can Live With.” New York Times, October 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beverley 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Beverley 2015; Namouni and Porco 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Namouni and Porco 2002)
  • Three authors: (Runnels, Yue, and Clapham 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tian et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of General Systems
AbbreviationInt. J. Gen. Syst.
ISSN (print)0308-1079
ISSN (online)1563-5104
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Control and Systems Engineering
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles