How to format your references using the International Journal of Fatigue citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fatigue. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt C. Immunology: Another shot at cancer. Nature 2015;527:S105-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicer GJ, Yu Y-TN. Evolution of novel cooperative swarming in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature 2003;425:75–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sezen UU, Chazdon RL, Holsinger KE. Genetic consequences of tropical second-growth forest regeneration. Science 2005;307:891.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beaumont HJE, Gallie J, Kost C, Ferguson GC, Rainey PB. Experimental evolution of bet hedging. Nature 2009;462:90–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn G. HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Sharma BK, Kulshreshtha S, Rahmani AR, editors. Faunal Heritage of Rajasthan, India: General Background and Ecology of Vertebrates. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Connor MJ, Oommen A. Clinical Pearls: Non-dialytic Management of Kidney Complications in the Postoperative Period. In: Thakar CV, Parikh CR, editors. Perioperative Kidney Injury: Principles of Risk Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment, New York, NY: Springer; 2015, p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fatigue.

Blog post
Hale T. What Actually Is The Insanely Potent VX Nerve Agent That Killed Kim Jong-Nam? IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Mergers: Issues Raised by the Proposed Merger of United and Continental Airlines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph WR. Physical Characterization of Vernix Caseosa: Implications for Biological Function. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2002.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF. Superman’s Debut Comic Sells For $1 Million. New York Times 2010:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fatigue
AbbreviationInt. J. Fatigue
ISSN (print)0142-1123
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles