How to format your references using the International Journal of Exercise Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Exercise Science (IJES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E. US debates future of Iraqi scientists. Nature 422(6934): 789, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu X, Ruvkun G. Cancer. Germ cell genes and cancer. Science 330(6012): 1761–2, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kleckner N, Zickler D, Witz G. Molecular biology. Chromosome capture brings it all together. Science 342(6161): 940–1, 2013.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiao S, Xiao F, Hu Y, Yuan S, Wang S, Qian L, et al. Hierarchical nanoporous gold-platinum with heterogeneous interfaces for methanol electrooxidation. Sci Rep 4: 4370, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulkarni S, Harman G. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory: Kulkarni/Statistical Learning Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Marcucci C, Hutchens MP, Wittwer ED, Weingarten TN, Sprung J, Nicholson WT, et al. (eds.). A Case Approach to Perioperative Drug-Drug Interactions. New York, NY: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Agranovsky M, Zalcman L. Analyticity on Curves. In: The Mathematical Legacy of Leon Ehrenpreis. Sabadini I, Struppa DC, eds. . Milano: Springer, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Exercise Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. Artificial Proteins Could Bring The Next Biological Revolution – Starting With MRI [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Competitiveness of Federal Computer Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dasari RA. Automatic driving system by recognizing road signs using digital image processing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S, Shea CD. Chat With Putin Was a Hoax. New York Times. A14, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,5,6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Exercise Science
ISSN (print)1939-795X

Other styles