How to format your references using the International Journal of Exercise Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Exercise Science (IJES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Komander D. Biochemistry. Details of destruction, one molecule at a time. Science 348(6231): 183–4, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Przyborski J, Lanzer M. Parasitology. The malarial secretome. Science 306(5703): 1897–8, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sobolevsky AI, Rosconi MP, Gouaux E. X-ray structure, symmetry and mechanism of an AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor. Nature 462(7274): 745–56, 2009.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ming Y, Tan A-H, Wu Z-J, Chen Z-X, Xu F, Lu Y-Q. Tailoring entanglement through domain engineering in a lithium niobate waveguide. Sci Rep 4: 4812, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk M, Broersen J, Schurink G. Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2014.
An edited book
Böhm C. Physical Unclonable Functions in Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Kapur PK, Pham H, Gupta A, Jha PC. Change-Point Models. In: Software Reliability Assessment with OR Applications. Pham H, Gupta A, Jha PC, eds. . London: Springer, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Exercise Science.

Blog post
Hale T. Sailors Find Millions Of Dollars Worth Of “Sperm Whale Puke” [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on CRS Direct Loan Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinchey BA. Punishing the Penitent: Disproportionate Fines in Recent FCPA Enforcements and Suggested Improvements [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. They Call Us Monsters. New York Times. C11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Exercise Science
ISSN (print)1939-795X

Other styles