How to format your references using the International Journal of Exercise Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Exercise Science (IJES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hejtmancik JF. Ophthalmology: Cataracts dissolved. Nature 523(7562): 540–1, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nielsen S, Zenkin N. Transcription. Response to Comment on “Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination.” Science 345(6196): 524, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Viculis LM, Mack JJ, Kaner RB. A chemical route to carbon nanoscrolls. Science 299(5611): 1361, 2003.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ji H, Ehrlich LIR, Seita J, Murakami P, Doi A, Lindau P, et al. Comprehensive methylome map of lineage commitment from haematopoietic progenitors. Nature 467(7313): 338–42, 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake AL. Handbook of Electrical Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Leopold H (ed.). Natural Language in Business Process Models: Theoretical Foundations, Techniques, and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gross O, Thomas CJ, Layland LE. Inflammasome Activation in Response to Eukaryotic Pathogens. In: The Inflammasomes. Couillin I, Pétrilli V, Martinon F, eds. . Basel: Springer, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Exercise Science.

Blog post
Hale T. Which Country Consumes The Most Calories? [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transit Grants: Need for Improved Predictability, Data, and Monitoring in Application Processing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker D. University Research Adminstrators’ Perception of Incivility and the Relationship to Employee Engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Liptak A. Justices Reject 2 Districts In North Carolina, Citing Packing of Black Voters. New York Times. A18, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Exercise Science
ISSN (print)1939-795X

Other styles