How to format your references using the Biological Cybernetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Cybernetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ihde D (2000) Epistemology engines. Nature 406:21
A journal article with 2 authors
Fakhraai Z, Forrest JA (2008) Measuring the surface dynamics of glassy polymers. Science 319:600–604
A journal article with 3 authors
Jin Z, Li P, Xiao D (2014) Enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction via active interfaces of layer-by-layered titanium nitride/titanium carbonitride structures. Sci Rep 4:6712
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Renaut C, Cluzel B, Dellinger J, et al (2013) On chip shapeable optical tweezers. Sci Rep 3:2290

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner DJ (2016) The ETF Handbook. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Norris SP (ed) (2012) Reading for Evidence and Interpreting Visualizations in Mathematics and Science Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Klingbeil H, Laier U, Lens D (2015) Advanced Topics. In: Laier U, Lens D (eds) Theoretical Foundations of Synchrotron and Storage Ring RF Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 225–297

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Cybernetics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Opportunity Rover Has Amnesia. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Student Loans: Selected Characteristics of Schools in Two Major Federal Loan Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deise EC (2008) Frame problems, Fodor’s challenge, and practical reason. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS, Haberman M (2017) Sessions, Shamed by President Over Inquiry, Was Set to Resign. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ihde 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ihde 2000; Fakhraai and Forrest 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fakhraai and Forrest 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Renaut et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Cybernetics
AbbreviationBiol. Cybern.
ISSN (print)0340-1200
ISSN (online)1432-0770
General Computer Science

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