How to format your references using the Biological Cybernetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Cybernetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fauci AS (2005) Race against time. Nature 435:423–424
A journal article with 2 authors
Swirski FK, Nahrendorf M (2013) Leukocyte behavior in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Science 339:161–166
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn CH, Triscone J-M, Mannhart J (2003) Electric field effect in correlated oxide systems. Nature 424:1015–1018
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rong H, Jones R, Liu A, et al (2005) A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser. Nature 433:725–728

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret D, Riesco R (2005) RFID and Contactless Smart Card Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England
An edited book
Ratajczak MZ (ed) (2014) Adult Stem Cell Therapies: Alternatives to Plasticity. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Barga R, Fontama V, Tok WH (2015) Integration with Python. In: Fontama V, Tok WH (eds) Predictive Analytics with Microsoft Azure Machine Learning. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 103–130

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Cybernetics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) ASU Origins Project Features The Great Debate of Parallel Realities. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Federal Judicial Space Follow-up. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Vlack KA (2012) Puaxant tuvip: Powerlands Southern Paiute cultural landscapes and pilgrimage trails. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey N (2016) Pregnant and Facing Dilemma Over Zika. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fauci 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Fauci 2005; Swirski and Nahrendorf 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Swirski and Nahrendorf 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rong et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Cybernetics
AbbreviationBiol. Cybern.
ISSN (print)0340-1200
ISSN (online)1432-0770
General Computer Science

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