How to format your references using the International Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Walsworth RL. Applied physics. The maser at 50. Science. 2004;306:236–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nogueiras R, Tschöp M. Biomedicine. Separation of conjoined hormones yields appetite rivals. Science. 2005;310:985–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hayward RC, Saville DA, Aksay IA. Electrophoretic assembly of colloidal crystals with optically tunable micropatterns. Nature. 2000;404:56–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Huang S-W, Lin J-W, Wang W-T, Wu C-W, Liou T-H, Lin H-W. Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for developing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Belsey C. A Future for Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Have HT, editor. Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Shi H, He M, Qin Z. Authenticated and Communication Efficient Group Key Agreement for Clustered Ad Hoc Networks. In: Pointcheval D, Mu Y, Chen K, editors. Cryptology and Network Security: 5th International Conference, CANS 2006, Suzhou, China, December 8-10, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. The Most Commonly Hacked Passwords In 2016 Were... Painfully Obvious [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/the-most-commonly-hacked-passwords-in-2016-were-painfully-obvious/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Assistance: PARIS Project Can Help States Reduce Improper Benefit Payments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Sep. Report No.: GAO-01-935.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Coles J. The Balancing of Parental Support and Pressure in Fostering Collegiate Athletes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Clarey C. Controlling Her Emotions, and Now Elevating Her Game. New York Times. 2017 Jan 24;B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)1865-1372
ISSN (online)1865-1380
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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