How to format your references using the International Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kazazian HH Jr. Mobile elements: drivers of genome evolution. Science. 2004;303:1626–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jakse N, Pasturel A. Liquid Aluminum: atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3135.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wieman CE, Adams WK, Perkins KK. PHYSICS. PhET: simulations that enhance learning. Science. 2008;322:682–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Reddy Chichili VP, Xiao Y, Seetharaman J, Cummins TR, Sivaraman J. Structural basis for the modulation of the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.6 by calmodulin. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2435.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kaschke M, Donnerhacke K-H, Rill MS. Optical Devices in Ophthalmology and Optometry. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2014.
An edited book
1. Rattan SIS, Hayflick L, editors. Cellular Ageing and Replicative Senescence. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Izmailov AF, Solodov MV. Constrained Optimization: Local Methods. In: Solodov MV, editor. Newton-Type Methods for Optimization and Variational Problems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 205–303.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Dark Matter Scatters Before the Light [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/dark-matter-scatters-light/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Consistent Criteria Are Needed To Assess Small-Business Innovation Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Jul. Report No.: PAD-81-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Onal B. RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Protess B, Ivory D. Bill to Weaken Dodd-Frank’s Rules on Private Equity Nears House Vote. New York Times. 2016 Sep 8;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)1865-1372
ISSN (online)1865-1380
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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