How to format your references using the International Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pierrehumbert RT. Warming the world. Nature. 2004;432:677.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kereszt A, Kondorosi E. Plant science. Unlocking the door to invasion. Science. 2011;331:865–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Seibel BA, Robison BH, Haddock SHD. Post-spawning egg care by a squid. Nature. 2005;438:929.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Joh NH, Min A, Faham S, Whitelegge JP, Yang D, Woods VL, et al. Modest stabilization by most hydrogen-bonded side-chain interactions in membrane proteins. Nature. 2008;453:1266–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stauffer HB. Contemporary Bayesian and Frequentist Statistical Research Methods for Natural Resource Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Andersen SL, Pine DS, editors. The Neurobiology of Childhood. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zou L, Larsson L. A Verification and Validation Study Based on Resistance Submissions. In: Larsson L, Stern F, Visonneau M, editors. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics: An assessment of the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 203–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Meet The 800-Year-Old Golden Rhinoceros That Challenged Apartheid South Africa. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Long-Term Viability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-95-142.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pease M. Progress towards the Synthesis of a Potent, Bioavailable and Selective Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase-1 Inactivator [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schwartz J. A Climate Change Evangelist. New York Times. 2016 Oct 11;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)1865-1372
ISSN (online)1865-1380
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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