How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaplan, K., 2009. Personnel dilemma. Nature 458, 372–373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rauch, S.L., Carlezon, W.A., Jr, 2013. Neuroscience. Illuminating the neural circuitry of compulsive behaviors. Science 340, 1174–1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shams, L., Kamitani, Y., Shimojo, S., 2000. Illusions. What you see is what you hear. Nature 408, 788.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takahashi, H., Kato, M., Matsuura, M., Mobbs, D., Suhara, T., Okubo, Y., 2009. When your gain is my pain and your pain is my gain: neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude. Science 323, 937–939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf, T., 2006. Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
van Ham, M., Manley, D., Bailey, N., Simpson, L., Maclennan, D. (Eds.), 2013. Understanding Neighbourhood Dynamics: New Insights for Neighbourhood Effects Research. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kihara, K., Matsuoka, Y., Ishioka, J., Fujii, Y., Saito, K., Numao, N., Kawamura, N., Inoue, M., 2015. Gasless Single-Port RoboSurgeon Retroperitoneoscopic Adrenalectomy, in: Kihara, K. (Ed.), Gasless Single-Port RoboSurgeon Surgery in Urology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 85–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. How To Beat The Casino – Legally [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Public Schools: Comparison of Achievement Results for Students Attending Privately Managed and Traditional Schools in Six Cities (No. GAO-04-62). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guilford, T.D., 2010. Advocacy for former prisoners to eliminate invisible bars: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2013. An Event for the Elite and the Average Alike. New York Times F2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaplan, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kaplan, 2009; Rauch and Carlezon, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rauch and Carlezon, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Takahashi et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Development
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0738-0593
Sociology and Political Science

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