How to format your references using the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lienhardt C. Fundamental research is the key to eliminating TB. Nature. 2014;507:401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weller E, Cai W. Meridional variability of atmospheric convection associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suzuki N, Nishiura M, Wakatsuki Y. Isolation and structural characterization of 1-zirconacyclopent-3-yne, five-membered cyclic alkynes. Science. 2002;295:660–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chilingarian I, Cayatte V, Revaz Y, et al. A population of compact elliptical galaxies detected with the Virtual Observatory. Science. 2009;326:1379–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habib MAR. Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell 2010.
An edited book
Jarnicki M. Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Functions: The Monsters of Analysis. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lowder K. Fears. In: Fasching-Varner KJ, Eisworth HB, Mencer TH, et al., eds. Student Teaching: A Journey in Narratives. Rotterdam: SensePublishers 2013:37–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew D. Protect Your Privacy During Turbulent Times: A Hacker’s Guide To Being Cyber-Safe. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Insights Into CETA’s In-School Youth Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu B. Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. A Rich Baseball History, Now on Display. New York Times. 2016;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases
AbbreviationAnn. Rheum. Dis.
ISSN (print)0003-4967
ISSN (online)1468-2060
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles