How to format your references using the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Doebley J. Plant science. Unfallen grains: how ancient farmers turned weeds into crops. Science 2006;312:1318–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Jacoby CA, Frazer TK. Eutrophication: time to adjust expectations. Science 2009;324:723–4; author reply 724-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
MacLehose L, McKee M, Weinberg J. Responding to the challenge of communicable disease in Europe. Science 2002;295:2047–50.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Turner A, Beales J, Faure S, et al. The pseudo-response regulator Ppd-H1 provides adaptation to photoperiod in barley. Science 2005;310:1031–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Ben Mahmoud MS, Guerber C, Larrieu N, et al. Aeronautical Air-Ground Data Link Communications. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2014.
An edited book
1
Alapati SR. Oracle Database 11g Performance Tuning Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Berkeley, CA: : Apress 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Roushdy HM. Higher Risk of Health Problems for Radio-Contaminated Food Consumption by Human Population Suffering Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Environmental Chemical Pollution. In: Hefnawy M, ed. Advances in Food Protection: Focus on Food Safety and Defense. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2011. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Blog post
1
Andrews R. What Type Of Nuclear Weapon Did North Korea Just Detonate? IFLScience. 2016.https://www.iflscience.com/technology/type-nuclear-weapon-north-korea-detonate/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Management of Northeast Corridor Improvements Demonstrates Need for Applying Best Practices. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Valeika SR. The epidemiology of varicella under a two -dose vaccination strategy: Results of a mathematical transmission model with a novel strategy of sensitivity analysis. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Baker L. High Mountain Hiking With a Golden Reward. New York Times. 2006;:F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases
AbbreviationAnn. Rheum. Dis.
ISSN (print)0003-4967
ISSN (online)1468-2060
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology
Immunology and Allergy
Rheumatology

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