How to format your references using the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bornens M. The centrosome in cells and organisms. Science 2012;335:422–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kessler MA, Werner BT. Self-organization of sorted patterned ground. Science 2003;299:380–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Junker JP, Ziegler F, Rief M. Ligand-dependent equilibrium fluctuations of single calmodulin molecules. Science 2009;323:633–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boal AK, Ilhan F, DeRouchey JE, et al. Self-assembly of nanoparticles into structured spherical and network aggregates. Nature 2000;404:746–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu E, Noppe-Brandon S. Imagination First. San Francisco, CA, USA: : Jossey-Bass 2011.
An edited book
Boehncke W-H, Radeke HH, editors. Biologics in General Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Tarapore RS, Katz JP. Molecular Pathology of Squamous Carcinomas of the Esophagus. In: Sepulveda AR, Lynch JP, eds. Molecular Pathology of Neoplastic Gastrointestinal Diseases. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2013. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew D. Jogging Can Add Years To Your Life – Here Are Six Simple Tips To Get You Started. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improving the Collection of Debts Owed the Government. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappell SD. Systematic analysis of essential genes reveals new regulators of G protein signaling. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Collier; Sophia Collier is the president of the American Natural Beverage Corporation. STREET SMARTS. New York Times. 1988;:674.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases
AbbreviationAnn. Rheum. Dis.
ISSN (print)0003-4967
ISSN (online)1468-2060
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles