How to format your references using the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Gibney E. How to tame the flood of literature. Nature 2014;513:129–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Mathôt S, Theeuwes J. A reinvestigation of the reference frame of the tilt-adaptation aftereffect. Sci Rep 2013;3:1152.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Taylor JP, Hardy J, Fischbeck KH. Toxic proteins in neurodegenerative disease. Science 2002;296:1991–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Yang Z-Y, Wei C-J, Kong W-P, et al. Immunization by avian H5 influenza hemagglutinin mutants with altered receptor binding specificity. Science 2007;317:825–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Dickson EFG. Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.
An edited book
1
Losa GA, Merlini D, Nonnenmacher TF, et al., editors. Fractals in Biology and Medicine. Basel: : Birkhäuser 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Serapião ABS, Mendes JRP, Miura K. Artificial Immune Systems for Classification of Petroleum Well Drilling Operations. In: Castro LN de, Zuben FJV, Knidel H, eds. Artificial Immune Systems: 6th International Conference, ICARIS 2007, Santos, Brazil, August 26-29, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2007. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Blog post
1
Carpineti A. SpaceX Has Started Testing Its Mars Rocket Engine. IFLScience. 2016.https://www.iflscience.com/space/spacex-has-started-testing-its-mars-rocket-engine/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Embedded Computer Systems: Software Development Problems Delay the Army’s Fire Direction Data Manager. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Evans MD. A Correlational Analysis of Teacher Observation Scores and Student Achievement. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Walsh MW. Teamsters Pension Fund Warns 400,000 of Cuts. New York Times. 2015;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases
AbbreviationAnn. Rheum. Dis.
ISSN (print)0003-4967
ISSN (online)1468-2060
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology
Immunology and Allergy
Rheumatology

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