How to format your references using the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Sargent M. Obituary: Willis E. Lamb Jr (1913-2008). Nature 2008;453:867.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Campbell P, Grayson M. Assessing science. Nature 2014;511:S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Munsky B, Neuert G, van Oudenaarden A. Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation. Science 2012;336:183–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Hansen B, Østerhus S, Quadfasel D, et al. Climate science. Already the day after tomorrow? Science 2004;305:953–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Petrucelli JR. Detecting Fraud in Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2013.
An edited book
1
Meyer AL, Gullotta TP, editors. Physical Activity Across the Lifespan: Prevention and Treatment for Health and Well-Being. New York, NY: : Springer 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Iosifidis P, Wheeler M. Modern Political Communication and Web 2.0 in Representative Democracies: The United States and the British Experience. In: Wheeler M, ed. Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond. London: : Palgrave Macmillan UK 2016. 95–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Blog post
1
Fang J. Two New Species Of Vampire Crabs Discovered. IFLScience. 2015.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/two-new-vampire-crabs-traced-back-java-indonesia/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Vehicle Safety Inspections: Improved DOT Communication Could Better Inform State Programs. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Sugawara Y. When the Spaniels conquered Central America: Academic English and first year composition instruction. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Billard M. Scouting Report. New York Times. 2010;:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases
AbbreviationAnn. Rheum. Dis.
ISSN (print)0003-4967
ISSN (online)1468-2060
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology
Immunology and Allergy
Rheumatology

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