How to format your references using the Interacting with Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interacting with Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N., 2012. Materials science: Super carbon. Nature 483, S30-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flatt, T., Promislow, D.E.L., 2007. Physiology. Still pondering an age-old question. Science 318, 1255–1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norris, D.J., Efros, A.L., Erwin, S.C., 2008. Doped nanocrystals. Science 319, 1776–1779.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Khaitovich, P., Hellmann, I., Enard, W., Nowick, K., Leinweber, M., Franz, H., Weiss, G., Lachmann, M., Pääbo, S., 2005. Parallel patterns of evolution in the genomes and transcriptomes of humans and chimpanzees. Science 309, 1850–1854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Assing, D., Calé, S., 2013. Mobile Access Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA.
An edited book
Al-Ekabi, C. (Ed.), 2015. European Autonomy in Space, Studies in Space Policy. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Peterson, A., 2015. Civic Virtue and Global Responsibilities, in: Print, M., Tan, C. (Eds.), Educating “Good” Citizens in a Globalising World for the Twenty-First Century. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interacting with Computers.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Study Shows Direct Manipulation Of Brain Can Reverse Effects Of Depression [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Less Competition Continue at Concentrated Airports (No. RCED-93-171). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sponsel, H., 2010. Was sagte dieser Schiller (damals)? Schillers Antworten auf seine Kritiker nach 1945 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F., 2007. Appeal Goes Against Couple’s Animal Shelter. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Flatt and Promislow, 2007; Savage, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flatt and Promislow, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Khaitovich et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInteracting with Computers
AbbreviationInteract. Comput.
ISSN (print)0953-5438
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction

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