How to format your references using the Interacting with Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interacting with Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ciotti, L., 2009. Galaxy formation: Anatomy of elliptical galaxies. Nature 460, 333–334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Erwin, D.H., Krakauer, D.C., 2004. Evolution. Insights into innovation. Science 304, 1117–1119.
A journal article with 3 authors
Imaizumi, T., Kay, S.A., Schroeder, J.I., 2007. Circadian rhythms. Daily watch on metabolism. Science 318, 1730–1731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McIsaac, G.F., David, M.B., Gertner, G.Z., Goolsby, D.A., 2001. Nitrate flux in the Mississippi River. Nature 414, 166–167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kay, R., 2014. Statistical Thinking for Non-Statisticians in Drug Regulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Saunders, W.B., Landman, N.H. (Eds.), 2010. Nautilus: The Biology and Paleobiology of a Living Fossil, Reprint with additions, 2nd ed, Topics in Geobiology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bijak, J., Kicinger, A., Kupiszewski, M., 2013. International Migration Scenarios for 27 European Countries, 2002–2052, in: Kupiszewski, M. (Ed.), International Migration and the Future of Populations and Labour in Europe, The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interacting with Computers.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Major Improvement To Drug-Free Fertility Treatment [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Basis Used by the Office of Education for Classifying Contracts as Either Competitive or Noncompetitive (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cervantes-Kelly, M.D., 2010. Translation and interpretation as a means to improve bilingual high school students’ English and Spanish academic language proficiency (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Look & See: A Portrait of Wendell Berry. New York Times C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ciotti, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ciotti, 2009; Erwin and Krakauer, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Erwin and Krakauer, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (McIsaac et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInteracting with Computers
AbbreviationInteract. Comput.
ISSN (print)0953-5438
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction

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