How to format your references using the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.L. Haag, Algae bloom again, Nature. 447 (2007) 520–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Bucchi, F. Neresini, Biotechnology. Why are people hostile to biotechnologies?, Science. 304 (2004) 1749.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Wu, T.L. Ooi, Z.J. He, Perceiving distance accurately by a directional process of integrating ground information, Nature. 428 (2004) 73–77.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Huo, S. Yang, Z. Wei, S.-S. Li, J.-B. Xia, J. Li, Photoresponsive and gas sensing field-effect transistors based on multilayer WS₂ nanoflakes, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.F. Levander, Where is American Literature?, Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
I. Cohen, Noise Reduction in Speech Processing, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
C. De Stefano, F. Fontanella, G. Folino, A.S. di Freca, A Bayesian Approach for Combining Ensembles of GP Classifiers, in: C. Sansone, J. Kittler, F. Roli (Eds.), Multiple Classifier Systems: 10th International Workshop, MCS 2011, Naples, Italy, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 26–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Freeze Atoms to Near Absolute Zero, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Government: Agencies Face Challenges in Implementing New Federal Employee Identification Standard, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.J. Hayen, Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy: Finding the Way Back to Our Animal Soul, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Johnston, Quotation of the Day, New York Times. (2011) A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
AbbreviationInt. J. Disaster Risk Reduct.
ISSN (print)2212-4209
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety Research

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