How to format your references using the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Supattapone, Biochemistry. What makes a prion infectious?, Science. 327 (2010) 1091–1092.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Boots, M. Mealor, Local interactions select for lower pathogen infectivity, Science. 315 (2007) 1284–1286.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Zhang, J.J. Magan, W.J. Blau, A general strategy for hybrid thin film fabrication and transfer onto arbitrary substrates, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4822.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Pál, B. Papp, M.J. Lercher, P. Csermely, S.G. Oliver, L.D. Hurst, Chance and necessity in the evolution of minimal metabolic networks, Nature. 440 (2006) 667–670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Lesca, N. Lesca, Strategic Decisions and Weak Signals, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
K. Chaudhuri, S.N. Chatterjee, eds., Cholera Toxins, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Valdez-Hernández, Vegetative and Reproductive Plant Phenology, in: G.A. Islebe, S. Calmé, J.L. León-Cortés, B. Schmook (Eds.), Biodiversity and Conservation of the Yucatán Peninsula, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 57–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.

Blog post
J. Davis, Scientists Identify The Genes Responsible For Cannabis’ Distinct Flavor, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Health Records: HHS Strategy to Address Information Exchange Challenges Lacks Specific Prioritized Actions and Milestones, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Z. Quashie, Issues with Care Provided by Direct Care Workers: A Case Study, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Suffolk Bill Focuses On Day Laborers, New York Times. (2007) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
AbbreviationInt. J. Disaster Risk Reduct.
ISSN (print)2212-4209
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety Research

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