How to format your references using the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.A. Kerr, The Sun Again Intrudes on Earth’s Decadal Climate Change, Science. 288 (2000) 1986.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.S. Madin, S.R. Connolly, Ecological consequences of major hydrodynamic disturbances on coral reefs, Nature. 444 (2006) 477–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Ahissar, R. Sosnik, S. Haidarliu, Transformation from temporal to rate coding in a somatosensory thalamocortical pathway, Nature. 406 (2000) 302–306.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.C. Brissett, R.S. Pitcher, R. Juarez, A.J. Picher, A.J. Green, T.R. Dafforn, G.C. Fox, L. Blanco, A.J. Doherty, Structure of a NHEJ polymerase-mediated DNA synaptic complex, Science. 318 (2007) 456–459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. El Hami, B. Radi, Uncertainty and Optimization in Structural Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
A. Appice, Data Mining Techniques in Sensor Networks: Summarization, Interpolation and Surveillance, Springer, London, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
L. González-Candelas, S. Alamar, A.R. Ballester, P. Sánchez-Torres, J. Forment, J. Gadea, M.T. Lafuente, L. Zacarías, J.F. Marcos, Global Regulation of Genes in Citrus Fruit in Response to the Postharvest Pathogen Penicillium digitatum, in: D. Prusky, M.L. Gullino (Eds.), Postharvest Pathology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 57–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.

Blog post
J. Davis, Pre-Columbian Mexicans Were Probably Farming Rabbits And Hares, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: With Costs Increasing and Data Continuity at Risk, Improvements Needed in Tri-agency Decision Making, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.A. Amodeo, Structural and biochemical characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homolog SNF1, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R.A. Medellín, D.J. Melnick, M.C. Pearl, Protect Our Bats, New York Times. (2014) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
AbbreviationInt. J. Disaster Risk Reduct.
ISSN (print)2212-4209
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety Research

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