How to format your references using the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.S. Lozier, Deconstructing the conveyor belt, Science. 328 (2010) 1507–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Schulz, P. Rehling, Cell biology. Powering the cell cycle, Science. 346 (2014) 1059–1060.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.T. Pinker, B. Zhang, E.G. Dutton, Do satellites detect trends in surface solar radiation?, Science. 308 (2005) 850–854.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.A. Pavlov, A.I. Bobrov, N.V. Malekhonova, A.V. Pirogov, A.V. Nezhdanov, Self-assembled nanocrystals discovered in Chelyabinsk meteorite, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.H. Lui, Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
S.V. Lall, M. Freire, B. Yuen, R. Rajack, J.-J. Helluin, eds., Urban Land Markets: Improving Land Management for Successful Urbanization, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Orbay, W. Cai, Tissue Engineering Applications for Peripheral Nerve Repair, in: W. Cai (Ed.), Engineering in Translational Medicine, Springer, London, 2014: pp. 133–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “Watermelon Snow” Is Causing Arctic Glaciers To Melt Even Faster, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 2, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.K. Kasun, Economic effectiveness of physician organizational models in a California integrated healthcare system, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. O’connor, Biking Through Badlands, New York Times. (2016) TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
AbbreviationInt. J. Disaster Risk Reduct.
ISSN (print)2212-4209
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety Research

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