How to format your references using the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.J.C. Caron, Eppendorf. Brains don’t play dice--or do they?, Science. 342 (2013) 574.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Villier, D. Korn, Morphological disparity of ammonoids and the mark of Permian mass extinctions, Science. 306 (2004) 264–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.W. Schmidt, H.J. Spero, D.W. Lea, Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, Nature. 428 (2004) 160–163.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V.R. Stamenkovic, B. Fowler, B.S. Mun, G. Wang, P.N. Ross, C.A. Lucas, N.M. Marković, Improved oxygen reduction activity on Pt3Ni(111) via increased surface site availability, Science. 315 (2007) 493–497.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Rowlinson, A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
G. Azzopardi, N. Petkov, eds., Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns: 16th International Conference, CAIP 2015, Valletta, Malta, September 2-4, 2015 Proceedings, Part I, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Kanba, K. Kudo, N. Kaneko, H. Wati, H. Iguchi, K. Takemoto, Neuroscience of Emotional Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, in: N. Kato, M. Kawata, R.K. Pitman (Eds.), PTSD: Brain Mechanisms and Clinical Implications, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2006: pp. 47–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, This Time-Lapse Of Cell Division In A Tadpole Egg Is Apparently Real, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Examples of Job Hopping by Commercial Drivers After Failing Drug Tests, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Bravo, The development of a viable business plan: Analytics of 30 day readmission rates for hospitals and ancillary services, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.L. Dorman, Art Deco Comfort by the French Quarter, New York Times. (2017) TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
AbbreviationInt. J. Disaster Risk Reduct.
ISSN (print)2212-4209
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Safety Research

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