How to format your references using the International Journal of Digital Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Digital Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford, Heidi. 2007. “Taxi-Cab Teaching.” Nature 445 (7128): 678–679.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Ran, and Yi Wang. 2013. “Neural Mechanism for Sensing Fast Motion in Dim Light.” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doebeli, Michael, Christoph Hauert, and Timothy Killingback. 2004. “The Evolutionary Origin of Cooperators and Defectors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5697): 859–862.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Reich, David, Richard E. Green, Martin Kircher, Johannes Krause, Nick Patterson, Eric Y. Durand, Bence Viola, et al. 2010. “Genetic History of an Archaic Hominin Group from Denisova Cave in Siberia.” Nature 468 (7327): 1053–1060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigee, David C. 2005. Freshwater Microbiology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Arora, Naveen Kumar, ed. 2015. Plant Microbes Symbiosis: Applied Facets. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Lehn, Helmut, Laura Margarete Simon, and Melanie Oertel. 2014. “Climate Change Impacts on the Water Sector.” In Climate Adaptation Santiago, edited by Kerstin Krellenberg and Bernd Hansjürgens, 59–79. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Digital Earth.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “Earth May Have Briefly Supported Complex Life Long Before We Arrived.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Marine Transportation: Federal Financing and a Framework for Infrastructure Investments. GAO-02-1033. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Douet, Christophe. 2010. “The Influence of an Overseas Trip to France on High School Students Studying French, Four Years after Graduation.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gates, Anita. 2013. “One Despicable, Another Disdainful.” New York Times, June 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manabe 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Atwood 2008; Powell 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Wang 2013)
  • Three authors: (Doebeli, Hauert, and Killingback 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xie et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Digital Earth
AbbreviationInt. J. Digit. Earth
ISSN (print)1753-8947
ISSN (online)1753-8955
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles