How to format your references using the International Journal of Digital Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Digital Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, David. 2003. “Scientists Call for Canada to Boost Polar-Shelf Funding.” Nature 421 (6922): 464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tabin, Clifford J., and Andrew P. McMahon. 2008. “Developmental Biology. Grasping Limb Patterning.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5887): 350–352.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaneko, Yoshikatsu, Falk Nimmerjahn, and Jeffrey V. Ravetch. 2006. “Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Immunoglobulin G Resulting from Fc Sialylation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5787): 670–673.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Novelli, Fabio, Daniele Fausti, Francesca Giusti, Fulvio Parmigiani, and Matthias Hoffmann. 2013. “Mixed Regime of Light-Matter Interaction Revealed by Phase Sensitive Measurements of the Dynamical Franz-Keldysh Effect.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Magnasco, Valerio. 2010. Models for Bonding in Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Majumder, Hemanta K., ed. 2008. Drug Targets in Kinetoplastid Parasites. Vol. 625. Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jia, Y., M. M. Özer, H. H. Weitering, and Z. Zhang. 2011. “Quantum Size Effects in the Growth and Properties of Ultrathin Metal Films, Alloys, and Related Low-Dimensional Structures.” In Nanophenomena at Surfaces: Fundamentals of Exotic Condensed Matter Properties, edited by Michail Michailov, 67–112. Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Digital Earth.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. “Scientists Are Tweeting Photos Of Animal Genitals In A #JunkOff.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Opportunity for Savings of Large Sums in Acquiring Computer Systems Under Federal Grant Programs. FGMSD-75-34. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rafibakhsh, Nima. 2013. “Industrial Applications of Microsoft Xbox Kinect Sensor.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blecher, George. 2014. “In Pursuit of the Perfect Pie.” New York Times, August 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spurgeon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Spurgeon 2003; Tabin and McMahon 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tabin and McMahon 2008)
  • Three authors: (Kaneko, Nimmerjahn, and Ravetch 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Novelli et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Digital Earth
AbbreviationInt. J. Digit. Earth
ISSN (print)1753-8947
ISSN (online)1753-8955
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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