How to format your references using the International Journal of Digital Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Digital Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ekeland, I., I. 2000. “Mathematics. Curves and Numbers.” Nature 405 (6788): 748–749.
A journal article with 2 authors
Verchère, Alice, and Anant K. Menon. 2015. “Structural Biology: Lipid Gymnastics.” Nature 524 (7566): 420–422.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sobolevsky, Alexander I., Michael P. Rosconi, and Eric Gouaux. 2009. “X-Ray Structure, Symmetry and Mechanism of an AMPA-Subtype Glutamate Receptor.” Nature 462 (7274): 745–756.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zwierlein, M. W., J. R. Abo-Shaeer, A. Schirotzek, C. H. Schunck, and W. Ketterle. 2005. “Vortices and Superfluidity in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas.” Nature 435 (7045): 1047–1051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boutillier, Sophie, Denis Carré, and Nadine Levratto. 2016. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Elfadel, Ibrahim (abe) M., and Gerhard Fettweis, eds. 2016. 3D Stacked Chips: From Emerging Processes to Heterogeneous Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Krylov, Andrey, and Andrey Nasonov. 2011. “Edge-Directed Image Interpolation Using Color Gradient Information.” In Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2011: 16th International Conference, Ravenna, Italy, September 14-16, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, edited by Giuseppe Maino and Gian Luca Foresti, 40–49. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Digital Earth.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Tiny Satellites Discover Biggest Stellar Heartbeat.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Space Acquisitions: Actions Needed to Expand and Sustain Use of Best Practices. GAO-07-730T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hrivnak, George Allen. 2009. “Extending a Model of Leader -Member Exchange Development: Individual and Dyadic Effects of Personality, Similarity and Liking.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2016. “Streisand’s ‘Encore’ Tops Album Chart.” New York Times, September 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ekeland 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ekeland 2000; Verchère and Menon 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Verchère and Menon 2015)
  • Three authors: (Sobolevsky, Rosconi, and Gouaux 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zwierlein et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Digital Earth
AbbreviationInt. J. Digit. Earth
ISSN (print)1753-8947
ISSN (online)1753-8955
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles