How to format your references using the International Journal of Digital Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Digital Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hutson, Jeremy M. 2010. “Chemistry. Ultracold Chemistry.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5967): 788–789.
A journal article with 2 authors
Löytynoja, Ari, and Nick Goldman. 2009. “Evolution. Uniting Alignments and Trees.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5934): 1528–1529.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hastings, M. G., J. C. Jarvis, and E. J. Steig. 2009. “Anthropogenic Impacts on Nitrogen Isotopes of Ice-Core Nitrate.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5932): 1288.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yang, H-B, J. D. Rameau, P. D. Johnson, T. Valla, A. Tsvelik, and G. D. Gu. 2008. “Emergence of Preformed Cooper Pairs from the Doped Mott Insulating State in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta.” Nature 456 (7218): 77–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Park, Sejin, and Georges Guille-Escuret. 2017. Sociobiology vs Socioecology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cash, Philip, Tino Stanković, and Mario Štorga, eds. 2016. Experimental Design Research: Approaches, Perspectives, Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Camenisch, Jan, Kristiyan Haralambiev, Markulf Kohlweiss, Jorn Lapon, and Vincent Naessens. 2011. “Structure Preserving CCA Secure Encryption and Applications.” In Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2011: 17th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Seoul, South Korea, December 4-8, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Dong Hoon Lee and Xiaoyun Wang, 89–106. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Digital Earth.

Blog post
Carpineti, Chris. 2017. “Watch How Marine Scientists In The Sea Of Cortez Tag Sharks.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Higher Education and Disability: Improved Federal Enforcement Needed to Better Protect Students’ Rights to Testing Accommodations. GAO-12-40. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, Wendy C. 2015. “Life Satisfaction of Air Force Civilian Male Spouses.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip, Michael, and Michael Schwirtz. 2015. “Even as Many Eyes Watch, Brutality at Rikers Persists.” New York Times, February 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hutson 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hutson 2010; Löytynoja and Goldman 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Löytynoja and Goldman 2009)
  • Three authors: (Hastings, Jarvis, and Steig 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Digital Earth
AbbreviationInt. J. Digit. Earth
ISSN (print)1753-8947
ISSN (online)1753-8955
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles