How to format your references using the International Journal of Digital Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Digital Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neutze, Richard. 2015. “STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. Snapshots of a Protein Quake.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6259): 381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maillard, Ivan, and Warren S. Pear. 2007. “Immunology. Keeping a Tight Leash on Notch.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5826): 840–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
Driscoll, Robert, Amanda Hudson, and Stephen P. Jackson. 2007. “Yeast Rtt109 Promotes Genome Stability by Acetylating Histone H3 on Lysine 56.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5812): 649–652.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jasti, Jayasankar, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Eric B. Gonzales, and Eric Gouaux. 2007. “Structure of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1 at 1.9 A Resolution and Low PH.” Nature 449 (7160): 316–323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner, Howard. 2005. Managing Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chinchuluun, Altannar, Panos M. Pardalos, Rentsen Enkhbat, and Ider Tseveendorj, eds. 2010. Optimization and Optimal Control: Theory and Applications. Vol. 39. Springer Optimization and Its Applications. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
McNall, Scott G. 2016. “What Have Eggs Got to Do with Inequality?” In Understanding Inequality: Social Costs and Benefits, edited by Amanda Machin and Nico Stehr, 79–100. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Digital Earth.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Simulation Gives New Look Into Early Universe.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2009 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. GAO-10-92R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beattie, Larry J. 2013. “Meeting the Needs of Low Income Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rafkin, Louise. 2011. “Sascha Rothchild and Matt Kay.” New York Times, March 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neutze 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Neutze 2015; Maillard and Pear 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maillard and Pear 2007)
  • Three authors: (Driscoll, Hudson, and Jackson 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jasti et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Digital Earth
AbbreviationInt. J. Digit. Earth
ISSN (print)1753-8947
ISSN (online)1753-8955
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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