How to format your references using the International Journal of Digital Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Digital Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucchitta, Ivo. 2013. “Comment on ‘Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6129): 143.
A journal article with 2 authors
Awasthi, Amit, and Vijay K. Kuchroo. 2009. “Immunology. The Yin and Yang of Follicular Helper T Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5943): 953–955.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Jinghong, Tetsuya Sato, and Akira Kageyama. 2002. “Repeated and Sudden Reversals of the Dipole Field Generated by a Spherical Dynamo Action.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5561): 1887–1890.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zheng, Ye, Ashutosh Chaudhry, Arnold Kas, Paul deRoos, Jeong M. Kim, Tin-Tin Chu, Lynn Corcoran, Piper Treuting, Ulf Klein, and Alexander Y. Rudensky. 2009. “Regulatory T-Cell Suppressor Program Co-Opts Transcription Factor IRF4 to Control T(H)2 Responses.” Nature 458 (7236): 351–356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wren, Christopher. 2011. Concise Guide to Pediatric Arrhythmias. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Li, Zhaoshen, Zhuan Liao, and Mark McAlindon, eds. 2014. Handbook of Capsule Endoscopy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson, Roger G. 2016. “There and Back Again – Andrew Booth, a British Computer Pioneer, and His Interactions with US and Other Contemporaries.” In International Communities of Invention and Innovation: IFIP WG 9.7 International Conference on the History of Computing, HC 2016, Brooklyn, NY, USA, May 25-29, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Arthur Tatnall and Christopher Leslie, 58–70. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Digital Earth.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Artificial Intelligence Developed That Is As Accurate At Identifying Skin Cancer As Doctors.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Unemployment Insurance: Various Factors Affect Head Start and Other Early Childhood Teachers’ Eligibility for Benefits. GAO-17-34. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter, Cheryl A. 2008. “The Panhellenic Project: Assessing Learning Engagement Using Web 2.0 Technologies.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2006. “Second Hearing on Detroit Drug-Search Case Shows Deep Divisions on Supreme Court.” New York Times, May 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lucchitta 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lucchitta 2013; Awasthi and Kuchroo 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Awasthi and Kuchroo 2009)
  • Three authors: (Li, Sato, and Kageyama 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Digital Earth
AbbreviationInt. J. Digit. Earth
ISSN (print)1753-8947
ISSN (online)1753-8955
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles