How to format your references using the Journal of Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Daily GC (2001) Ecological forecasts. Nature 411:245
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratnieks FLW, Carreck NL (2010) Ecology. Clarity on honey bee collapse? Science 327:152–153
A journal article with 3 authors
Schweitzer MH, Wittmeyer JL, Horner JR (2005) Gender-specific reproductive tissue in ratites and Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 308:1456–1460
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tadin D, Lappin JS, Gilroy LA, Blake R (2003) Perceptual consequences of centre-surround antagonism in visual motion processing. Nature 424:312–315

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook MV (2011) Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Christianson B, Malcolm J (eds) (2014) Security Protocols XVIII: 18th International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, March 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Roht-Arriaza N (2014) Reparations and Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. In: Sharp DN (ed) Justice and Economic Violence in Transition. Springer, New York, NY, pp 109–138

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) No, Cat Poop Parasites Don’t Give You Mental Illnesses. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Vehicle Donations: Taxpayer Considerations When Donating Vehicles to Charities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazyck BS (2012) Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017) New Life Emerges From the ‘Big Bang.’ New York Times AR114

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Daily 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Daily 2001; Ratnieks and Carreck 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ratnieks and Carreck 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Tadin et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0916-8370
ISSN (online)1573-868X

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