How to format your references using the Journal of Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
James RD (2015) Materials science: Magnetic alloys break the rules. Nature 521:298–299
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw RJ, Cantley LC (2012) Cell biology. Ancient sensor for ancient drug. Science 336:813–814
A journal article with 3 authors
Micol-Ponce R, Aguilera V, Ponce MR (2014) A genetic screen for suppressors of a hypomorphic allele of Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE1. Sci Rep 4:5533
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sengupta S, Eavarone D, Capila I, et al (2005) Temporal targeting of tumour cells and neovasculature with a nanoscale delivery system. Nature 436:568–572

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Douglas B (2008) Achieving Business Success with GIS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Curtin RT, Reynolds PD (eds) (2009) New Firm Creation in the United States: Initial Explorations with the PSED II Data Set. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Iwata K, Nakashima T, Anan Y, Ishii N (2012) Clustering and Analyzing Embedded Software Development Projects Data Using Self-Organizing Maps. In: Lee R (ed) Software Engineering Research,Management and Applications 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) Why Do Capuchin Monkeys Cover Themselves In Smelly Substances? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Request for Radio Frequencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Driskill KM (2010) A qualitative study of teacher understanding and use of differentiated instruction to promote reading achievement. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2006) Schoolhouse Blues. New York Times 14LI8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (James 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Shaw and Cantley 2012; James 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shaw and Cantley 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Sengupta et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0916-8370
ISSN (online)1573-868X

Other styles