How to format your references using the Journal of Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dodt H-U (2015) Microscopy. The superresolved brain. Science 347:474–475
A journal article with 2 authors
Towbin JA, Bowles NE (2002) The failing heart. Nature 415:227–233
A journal article with 3 authors
Acuña JL, López-Urrutia Á, Colin S (2011) Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes. Science 333:1627–1629
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sandberg R, Neilson JR, Sarma A, et al (2008) Proliferating cells express mRNAs with shortened 3’ untranslated regions and fewer microRNA target sites. Science 320:1643–1647

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh JH, Castet J-F (2011) Spacecraft Reliability and Multi-State Failures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Alós-Ferrer C (2016) The Theory of Extensive Form Games. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kopczak LR, Matthews G (2016) Measuring Markets That Supply Cash-Based Humanitarian Interventions. In: Zobel CW, Altay N, Haselkorn MP (eds) Advances in Managing Humanitarian Operations. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–109

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Bright Spots Within Coral Reefs Suggest They Could Ultimately Be Saved. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Information Concerning the Arming of Commercial Pilots. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mickels BJ (2010) A phenomenological research study on the formation of global business teams. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) The Mayors Slept Here: Gracie Mansion Is Just the Latest. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dodt 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Towbin and Bowles 2002; Dodt 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Towbin and Bowles 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Sandberg et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0916-8370
ISSN (online)1573-868X

Other styles