How to format your references using the Journal of Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turnbull JE (2011) Chemistry. Getting the farm out of pharma for heparin production. Science 334:462–463
A journal article with 2 authors
Packer A, Clay K (2000) Soil pathogens and spatial patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree. Nature 404:278–281
A journal article with 3 authors
Krüger M, Schenk M, Hommelhoff P (2011) Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip. Nature 475:78–81
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Smartt SJ, Maund JR, Hendry MA, et al (2004) Detection of a red supergiant progenitor star of a type II-plateau supernova. Science 303:499–503

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armaroli N, Balzani V (2010) Energy for a Sustainable World. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Marques de Sá JP (2013) Minimum Error Entropy Classification. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sun Y, Lu Y (2006) A Grid-Based Subspace Clustering Algorithm for High-Dimensional Data Streams. In: Feng L, Wang G, Zeng C, Huang R (eds) Web Information Systems – WISE 2006 Workshops: WISE 2006 International Workshops, Wuhan, China, October 23-26, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oceanography.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Sensor Breakthrough Could Enable Smartphones To Detect Air Pollution. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Strategic Sourcing: Improved and Expanded Use Could Provide Procurement Savings for Federal Information Technology. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lastica JR (2012) Why Do They Stay? A Phenomenological Study of Secondary Science Teacher Experiences. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2009) The Court Changes the Game. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turnbull 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Packer and Clay 2000; Turnbull 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Packer and Clay 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Smartt et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0916-8370
ISSN (online)1573-868X

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