How to format your references using the Journal of Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Selkoe DJ (2003) Folding proteins in fatal ways. Nature 426:900–904
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattaini KR, Vander Heiden MG (2012) Cancer. Glycosylation to adapt to stress. Science 337:925–926
A journal article with 3 authors
Faucher-Giguère C-A, Lidz A, Hernquist L (2008) Numerical simulations unravel the cosmic web. Science 319:52–55
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Long YW, Hayashi N, Saito T, et al (2009) Temperature-induced A-B intersite charge transfer in an A-site-ordered LaCu(3)Fe(4)O(12) perovskite. Nature 458:60–63

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pietersen W (2010) Strategic Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Geary TG, Maule AG (eds) (2010) Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and Pest Control. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Sano Y, Kanda T (2016) Blood–Brain Barrier and Blood–Nerve Barrier. In: Kusunoki S (ed) Neuroimmunological Diseases. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 55–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oceanography.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Neil deGrasse Explains How Batman Could Defeat Superman. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Embedded Computer Systems: Status of C-17 Software. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meghani HP (2017) Med-Equip Solutions LLC: A wheelchair distributor company business plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cyran R, Hay G (2010) New Ventures Win Old Financiers. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Selkoe 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Selkoe 2003; Mattaini and Vander Heiden 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mattaini and Vander Heiden 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Long et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0916-8370
ISSN (online)1573-868X

Other styles