How to format your references using the International Journal of Dental Science and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Dental Science and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mooers AO. Biodiversity: Supply and demand. Nature. 2014;509(7499):171-172.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stroscio JA, Celotta RJ. Controlling the dynamics of a single atom in lateral atom manipulation. Science. 2004;306(5694):242-247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newsome TP, Scaplehorn N, Way M. SRC mediates a switch from microtubule- to actin-based motility of vaccinia virus. Science. 2004;306(5693):124-129.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luyssaert S, Schulze E-D, Börner A, et al. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature. 2008;455(7210):213-215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anjum B, Perros H. Bandwidth Allocation for Video Under Quality of Service Constraints. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Stickler BA. Basic Concepts in Computational Physics. 2nd ed. 2016. (Schachinger E, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Thouti S, Sivani K, Kishan Rao K. Performance Index of the Outage Probability for Two-Relay Decode and Forward Cooperative Communications. In: Shetty NR, Prasad NH, Nalini N, eds. Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications: ERCICA 2015, Volume 3. Springer; 2016:35-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Dental Science and Research.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Amazing Video Of Earth From Space, Set To A Pink Floyd Soundtrack. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Competition: Challenges in Enhancing Competition in Dominated Markets. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witvorapong N. The Dynamics of Living Arrangements Among the Elderly. Published online 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Aim That Kick Just to the Left of Those Flutists. New York Times. November 10, 2016:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Dental Science and Research
ISSN (print)2213-9974

Other styles