How to format your references using the International Journal of Dental Science and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Dental Science and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen A. Drug development: A combined effort. Nature. 2013;502(7470):S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Q, Paroo Z. Molecular biology. Dicer’s cut and switch. Science. 2010;328(5976):314-315.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng RL, Zhang H, Jiang WL. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4731.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu H, Seo YT, Lee JW, et al. Complex gas hydrate from the Cascadia margin. Nature. 2007;445(7125):303-306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hammes GG. Spectroscopy for the Biological Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Liu C, Chang J, Yang A, eds. Information Computing and Applications: Second International Conference, ICICA 2011, Qinhuangdao, China, October 28-31, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Vol 243. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Lines M. Local Bifurcation Theory Applied to OLG Models. In: Lines M, ed. Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Economics. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer; 2005:103-130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Dental Science and Research.

Blog post
Carpineti A. How We Are Listening To The Universe. IFLScience. Published January 20, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holman R. Music History Pedagogy: Three Approaches to Teaching a One-Semester Music History Survey Course in Accordance with the LEAP Initiative. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. Writing Partner ‘Flabbergasted’ By Accusations Against Halperin. New York Times. October 31, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Dental Science and Research
ISSN (print)2213-9974

Other styles