How to format your references using the International Journal of Coal Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Coal Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Daily, G.C., 2001. Ecological forecasts. Nature 411, 245.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, R.C., Scott, C.S., 2005. First evidence of a venom delivery apparatus in extinct mammals. Nature 435, 1091–1093.
A journal article with 3 authors
Debruyne, R., Schwarz, C., Poinar, H., 2008. Comment on “Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts.” Science 322, 857; author reply 857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pietrzak, B., Sharma, V., Wasalathanthri, D., Ellwanger, J.H., Sanganyado, E., Buschke, F., Beardsley, F.R., Agarwal, D., Jensen, M.M., Easun, T.L., Lin, H., Zhou, K., Jordan, E.J., Oda, F.S., MacKay, H., Coffey, E., Yoho, R., Winter, M., 2018. Nurturing connections to the environment. Science 362, 886–888.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayor, R.H., 2017. Fiorello La Guardia. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chinesta, F., 2014. PGD-Based Modeling of Materials, Structures and Processes, ESAFORM Bookseries on Material Forming. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Stenzig, J., Foo, R.S.-Y., 2016. DNA Methylation in Heart Failure, in: Backs, J., McKinsey, T.A. (Eds.), Epigenetics in Cardiac Disease, Cardiac and Vascular Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 75–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Coal Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Five Things I Learned When My Research Went Viral [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Consumers’ Location Data: Companies Take Steps to Protect Privacy, but Practices Are Inconsistent, and Risks May Not be Clear to Consumers (No. GAO-14-649T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, R., 2017. What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader? (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2012. Exhibition Recalls Slam-Bang World Of Pulp Magazines. New York Times F38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Daily, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Daily, 2001; Fox and Scott, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox and Scott, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Pietrzak et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Coal Geology
AbbreviationInt. J. Coal Geol.
ISSN (print)0166-5162
ScopeEconomic Geology
Fuel Technology

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