How to format your references using the International Journal of Coal Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Coal Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Retallack, G.J., 2001. A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles. Nature 411, 287–290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Head, J.J., Polly, P.D., 2015. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function. Nature 520, 86–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roseboom, W., Kawabe, T., Nishida, S., 2013. The cross-modal double flash illusion depends on featural similarity between cross-modal inducers. Sci. Rep. 3, 3437.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guillot, T., Miguel, Y., Militzer, B., Hubbard, W.B., Kaspi, Y., Galanti, E., Cao, H., Helled, R., Wahl, S.M., Iess, L., Folkner, W.M., Stevenson, D.J., Lunine, J.I., Reese, D.R., Biekman, A., Parisi, M., Durante, D., Connerney, J.E.P., Levin, S.M., Bolton, S.J., 2018. A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter’s deep interior. Nature 555, 227–230.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Suárez, A., 2008. Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hall, B.L., Clover, D.E., Crowther, J., Scandrett, E. (Eds.), 2012. Learnning and Educationfor a Bettter World: The Role of Social Movements, International Issues in adult Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Clifton, C., 2012. Discovering Privacy, in: Gaber, M.M. (Ed.), Journeys to Data Mining: Experiences from 15 Renowned Researchers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 51–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Coal Geology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Why One Glacier Isn’t Melting In a Warming World [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Status of Special National Direct Student Loan Funds (No. HRD-80-125). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsaadi, A., 2016. Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marguerite Kelly; Marguerite Kelly is a syndicated columnist, the co-author of “‘The Mother’s Almanac’” (Doubleday), 1985. TAKING TOYS SERIOUSLY. New York Times 646.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Retallack, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Head and Polly, 2015; Retallack, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Head and Polly, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Guillot et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Coal Geology
AbbreviationInt. J. Coal Geol.
ISSN (print)0166-5162
ScopeEconomic Geology
Fuel Technology

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