How to format your references using the International Journal of Coal Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Coal Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bordignon, C., 2006. Stem-cell therapies for blood diseases. Nature 441, 1100–1102.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ewald, A.J., Egeblad, M., 2014. Cancer: Sugar-coated cell signalling. Nature 511, 298–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhlen, M., Madau, P., Silk, J., 2009. Exploring dark matter with Milky Way substructure. Science 325, 970–973.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tan, L., An, Z., Huh, C.-A., Cai, Y., Shen, C.-C., Shiau, L.-J., Yan, L., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., 2014. Cyclic precipitation variation on the western Loess Plateau of China during the past four centuries. Sci. Rep. 4, 6381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J.G., 2014. Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chen, S.-H., Wang, P.P., Kuo, T.-W. (Eds.), 2007. Computational Intelligence in Economics and Finance: Volume II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ji, Y., Christopherson, G.T., Kluk, M.W., Amrani, O., Jackson, W.M., Nesti, L.J., 2012. Heterotopic Ossification Following Musculoskeletal Trauma: Modeling Stem and Progenitor Cells in Their Microenvironment, in: Rhim, J.S., Kremer, R. (Eds.), Human Cell Transformation: Role of Stem Cells and the Microenvironment, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Coal Geology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Wolf Spotted In Grand Canyon For The First Time In 70 Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Management Improvement in the Federal Government (No. 129190). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murphy-Perez, E., 2013. Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) Grown Silica Nanowires as the Interface for Biorecognition Molecules in Biosensors (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldman, A., Tabuchi, H., Ewing, J., 2017. F.B.I. Arrests Volkswagen Executive on Conspiracy Charges in Emissions Cheating Scandal. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bordignon, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bordignon, 2006; Ewald and Egeblad, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ewald and Egeblad, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Coal Geology
AbbreviationInt. J. Coal Geol.
ISSN (print)0166-5162
ScopeEconomic Geology
Fuel Technology

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