How to format your references using the International Journal of Coal Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Coal Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wei, H., 2011. Fundamental limits of “ankylography” due to dimensional deficiency. Nature 480, E1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ward, D.J., MacKay, D.J.C., 2002. Artificial intelligence: fast hands-free writing by gaze direction. Nature 418, 838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lieberman, D., Tooby, J., Cosmides, L., 2007. The architecture of human kin detection. Nature 445, 727–731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moon, C.R., Mattos, L.S., Foster, B.K., Zeltzer, G., Ko, W., Manoharan, H.C., 2008. Quantum phase extraction in isospectral electronic nanostructures. Science 319, 782–787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yakir, B., 2013. Extremes in Random Fields: A Theory and its Applications, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Iriondo, M.H., Paggi, J.C., Parma, M.J. (Eds.), 2007. The Middle Paraná River: Limnology of a Subtropical Wetland. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Claessen, K., Svensson, H., 2008. Finding Counter Examples in Induction Proofs, in: Beckert, B., Hähnle, R. (Eds.), Tests and Proofs: Second International Conference, TAP 2008, Prato, Italy, April 9-11, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 48–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Coal Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Elephant Herd Teams Up To Rescue Baby [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-96-30(4)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klein, J., 2017. Mississippian Space and Place: A Geographical Study of Archaeological Site Data in the American Bottom (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Novelist Faces Pornography Charge. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pearson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Buzsáki, 2007; Ledford, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ward and MacKay, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Springel et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Coal Geology
AbbreviationInt. J. Coal Geol.
ISSN (print)0166-5162
ScopeEconomic Geology
Fuel Technology

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