How to format your references using the International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jenkins A. Graduate journal: choosing a boss. Nature. 428(6980), 350 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
Philip N, Waters AP. Microbiology. Unveiling the malaria parasite’s cloak of invisibility? Science. 340(6135), 936–937 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Ekström G, Nettles M, Tsai VC. Seasonality and increasing frequency of Greenland glacial earthquakes. Science. 311(5768), 1756–1758 (2006).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanatar MA, Paglione J, Petrovic C, Taillefer L. Anisotropic violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law at a quantum critical point. Science. 316(5829), 1320–1322 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrison TJ. Functional Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Basu D. Structural Revolution in International Business Architecture: Political Economy: Volume 2. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Spath D, van Husen C, Meyer K, Elze R. Integrated Development of Software and Service — The Challenges of IT-Enabled Service Products. In: Advances in Services Innovations. Spath D, Fähnrich K-P (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 85–110 (2007).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
Andrews R. 83 Percent Of Us Will Suffer From A Mental Disorder, According To Study [Internet]. IFLScience (2017). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker MC. A descriptive study of the view from the top: Perspectives of experts in continuing medical education. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold K, Erlanger S, Yeginsu C. Britain on Edge As Terror Alert Hits Top Level. New York Times, A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Clinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationInt. J. Clin. Rheumtol.
ISSN (print)1758-4272
ISSN (online)1758-4280

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