How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batty, M. (2008). The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5864), 769–771.
A journal article with 2 authors
Accardi, A., & Miller, C. (2004). Secondary active transport mediated by a prokaryotic homologue of ClC Cl- channels. Nature, 427(6977), 803–807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Durham, W. M., Kessler, J. O., & Stocker, R. (2009). Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin phytoplankton layers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1067–1070.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huan, J., Wan, K., Liu, Y., Dong, W., & Wang, G. (2013). Removing PCR for the elimination of undesired DNA fragments cycle by cycle. Scientific Reports, 3, 2303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burghardt, G., & Walls, B. (2011). Managed Futures for Institutional Investors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Murphy, C., & Scantlebury, K. (Eds.). (2010). Coteaching in International Contexts: Research and Practice (Vol. 1). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Altland, A., & Egger, R. (2012). Nonequilibrium Transport and Dephasing in Coulomb-Blockaded Quantum Dots. In D. C. Cabra, A. Honecker, & P. Pujol (Eds.), Modern Theories of Many-Particle Systems in Condensed Matter Physics (pp. 215–244). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Modelling.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, February 22). Cheap Solar Cells Made From Shrimp Cells. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Aviation Security: TSA Has Strengthened Efforts to Plan for the Optimal Deployment of Checked Baggage Screening Systems, but Funding Uncertainties Remain (GAO-06-875T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dean, D. O. (2012). A discrete-time multiple event process survival mixture (MEPSUM) model for investigating the order and timing of multiple non-repeatable events [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, June 9). World Briefing | Middle East: Qatar: Death Sought For Russians. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batty, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Accardi & Miller, 2004; Batty, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Accardi & Miller, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Durham et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Huan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Modelling
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Model.
ISSN (print)2468-0427

Other styles