How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blatt, R. (2000). Push-button entanglement. Nature, 404(6775), 231–232.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poldrack, R. A., & Farah, M. J. (2015). Progress and challenges in probing the human brain. Nature, 526(7573), 371–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Downs, J. A., Nussenzweig, M. C., & Nussenzweig, A. (2007). Chromatin dynamics and the preservation of genetic information. Nature, 447(7147), 951–958.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Banyard, J., Chung, I., Wilson, A. M., Vetter, G., Le Béchec, A., Bielenberg, D. R., & Zetter, B. R. (2013). Regulation of epithelial plasticity by miR-424 and miR-200 in a new prostate cancer metastasis model. Scientific Reports, 3, 3151.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R. L. (2005). Fundamentals of Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Haragus, M. (2011). Local Bifurcations, Center Manifolds, and Normal Forms in Infinite-Dimensional Dynamical Systems (G. Iooss, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dooley, K., & Exley, B. (2015). Afterschool MediaClub: Critical Literacy in a High-Diversity, High-Poverty Urban Setting. In B. Yoon & R. Sharif (Eds.), Critical Literacy Practice: Applications of Critical Theory in Diverse Settings (pp. 41–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Modelling.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 14). Watch The Moment A Great White Shark Jumped Into A Cage With A Diver. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). The Stafford Student Loan Program (T-HRD-90-13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, V. D. (2014). Leadership behavior practice patterns’ relationship to employee work engagement in a nonprofit that supports the homeless [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, April 7). Van Wyck Guardrails Take a Beating From Cars and Trump. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blatt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Blatt, 2000; Poldrack & Farah, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poldrack & Farah, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Downs et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Banyard et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Modelling
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Model.
ISSN (print)2468-0427

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