How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D. (2002). Cambridge-MIT Institute probed. Nature, 420(6913), 256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elowitz, M. B., & Leibler, S. (2000). A synthetic oscillatory network of transcriptional regulators. Nature, 403(6767), 335–338.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, M., Atallah, B. V., & Scanziani, M. (2014). Equalizing excitation-inhibition ratios across visual cortical neurons. Nature, 511(7511), 596–600.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Goley, E. D., Ohkawa, T., Mancuso, J., Woodruff, J. B., D’Alessio, J. A., Cande, W. Z., Volkman, L. E., & Welch, M. D. (2006). Dynamic nuclear actin assembly by Arp2/3 complex and a baculovirus WASP-like protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5798), 464–467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, G. M., & Furlong, J. C. (2010). Environmental Biotechnology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rao, C. R. (2008). Linear Models and Generalizations: Least Squares and Alternatives (Shalabh, H. Toutenburg, & C. Heumann, Eds.; Third Extended Edition). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Horne, R., & Umarov, T. (2014). Ensuring Faultless Communication Behaviour in A Commercial Cloud. In S. Counsell & M. Núñez (Eds.), Software Engineering and Formal Methods: SEFM 2013 Collocated Workshops: BEAT2, WS-FMDS, FM-RAIL-Bok, MoKMaSD, and OpenCert, Madrid, Spain, September 23-24, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 44–55). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Modelling.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 18). Remains Of An Enormous Sea Creature Are Baffling Beach-Goers In Wales. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). DOD Education Benefits: Increased Oversight of Tuition Assistance Program Is Needed (GAO-11-300). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Montano, M. (2010). Supporting juvenile offenders reentering the community: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, October 1). A Tough Hill to Climb, but Not Impossible. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2002; Elowitz & Leibler, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elowitz & Leibler, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Xue et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Goley et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Modelling
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Model.
ISSN (print)2468-0427

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