How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruelle, D. (2001). Here be no dragons. Nature, 411(6833), 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard, M. S., & Doupe, A. J. (2002). What songbirds teach us about learning. Nature, 417(6886), 351–358.
A journal article with 3 authors
King, G., Pan, J., & Roberts, M. E. (2014). Political science. Reverse-engineering censorship in China: randomized experimentation and participant observation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6199), 1251722.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xin, H., Liu, D., Wan, M., Safari, A., Kim, H., Sun, W., O’Connor, M. S., & Songyang, Z. (2007). TPP1 is a homologue of ciliate TEBP-beta and interacts with POT1 to recruit telomerase. Nature, 445(7127), 559–562.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmott, P., & Orrell, D. (2017). The Money Formula. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leonard, T., & Willis, P. (Eds.). (2008). Pedagogies of the Imagination: Mythopoetic Curriculum in Educational Practice. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jones, S., & Woglom, J. F. (2016). More on Nomos. In J. F. Woglom (Ed.), On Mutant Pedagogies: Seeking Justice and Drawing Change in Teacher Education (pp. 71–77). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Modelling.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 20). We’re All Mammals – So Why Do We Look So Different? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Progress of the DD(X) Destroyer Program (GAO-05-752R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ELBoushi, T. C. (2010). Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2016, October 7). Forecast Hints That Hurricane Matthew Could Return. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruelle, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Brainard & Doupe, 2002; Ruelle, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brainard & Doupe, 2002)
  • Three authors: (King et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xin et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Modelling
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Model.
ISSN (print)2468-0427

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