How to format your references using the Infectious Disease Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Disease Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moraes, M. (2011). Perspective: Lessons from Brazil. Nature, 474(7352), S25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Uchida, M., & Tonomura, A. (2010). Generation of electron beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Nature, 464(7289), 737–739.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, B. S., Yook, K. S., & Lee, J. Y. (2014). Above 20% external quantum efficiency in novel hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes having green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter. Scientific Reports, 4, 6019.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Spencer, D. T., Drake, T., Briles, T. C., Stone, J., Sinclair, L. C., Fredrick, C., … Papp, S. B. (2018). An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics. Nature, 557(7703), 81–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barbaroux, P., Attour, A., & Schenk, E. (2016). Knowledge Management and Innovation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ritsner, M. S. (Ed.). (2011). Handbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Volume I: Conceptual Issues and Neurobiological Advances. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
White, P. J., & Lomotan, E. (2016). Evidence Based Health Care. In J. T. Finnell & B. E. Dixon (Eds.), Clinical Informatics Study Guide: Text and Review (pp. 101–109). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Disease Modelling.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, August 6). New Finch Species Evolves Before Our Eyes. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Information Security: Many NASA Missions-Critical Systems Face Serious Risks (No. AIMD-99-47). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres, N. (2012). Do family nurse practitioner students understand the physiological changes associated with andropause in men over forty? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, October 9). Two Pitchers Conquer Struggles and Morph Into Game 2 Starters. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moraes, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Moraes, 2011; Uchida & Tonomura, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Uchida & Tonomura, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Kim, Yook, & Lee, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Spencer et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Disease Modelling
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Model.
ISSN (print)2468-0427

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