How to format your references using the International Journal of Adolescence and Youth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huang, L. E. (2013). Biochemistry. How HIF-1α handles stress. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6125), 1285–1286.
A journal article with 2 authors
Romney, D. K., & Miller, S. J. (2015). Chemistry. Climbing Jacob’s ladder. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6224), 829.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannetti, V., Lloyd, S., & Maccone, L. (2001). Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchronization. Nature, 412(6845), 417–419.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Knox, K., Carrigan, D., Simmons, G., Teque, F., Zhou, Y., Hackett, J., Jr, Qiu, X., Luk, K.-C., Schochetman, G., Knox, A., Kogelnik, A. M., & Levy, J. A. (2011). No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6038), 94–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chance, D. M. (2008). Essays in Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Howard, A., Iagnemma, K., & Kelly, A. (Eds.). (2010). Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 7th International Conference (Vol. 62). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pimentel, D., & Burgess, M. (2014). Environmental and Economic Benefits of Reducing Pesticide Use. In D. Pimentel & R. Peshin (Eds.), Integrated Pest Management: Pesticide Problems, Vol.3 (pp. 127–139). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, June 22). Why Do Bluebirds Have A Better Home Turf Defence? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Review of Yolo County, California, Economic Opportunity Commission Concerning Matters Affecting Local Poverty Programs (HRD-81-110). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curiel, A. R. (2013). A re-examination of the Meyers and Volbrecht motor equation for the identification of suspect effort [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 29). Mets’ Pitching Coach Offers Wisdom and Wit. New York Times, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huang, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Huang, 2013; Romney & Miller, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Romney & Miller, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Giovannetti et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Knox et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Adolescence and Youth
AbbreviationInt. J. Adolesc. Youth
ISSN (print)0267-3843
ISSN (online)2164-4527
ScopeHealth(social science)

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