How to format your references using the International Journal of Adolescence and Youth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melton, L. (2004). Protein arrays: proteomics in multiplex. Nature, 429(6987), 101–107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carlip, S., & Vaidya, S. (2003). Cosmology: Do black holes constrain varying constants? Nature, 421(6922), 498.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurin-Csörgei, K., Epstein, I. R., & Orbán, M. (2005). Systematic design of chemical oscillators using complexation and precipitation equilibria. Nature, 433(7022), 139–142.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Grishchuk, E. L., Molodtsov, M. I., Ataullakhanov, F. I., & McIntosh, J. R. (2005). Force production by disassembling microtubules. Nature, 438(7066), 384–388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coleman, D. D., Westcott, D. A., & Harkins, B. E. (2016). CWSP®: Certified Wireless Security Professional Study Guide CWSP-205. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reussner, R., Mayer, J., Stafford, J. A., Overhage, S., Becker, S., & Schroeder, P. J. (Eds.). (2005). Quality of Software Architectures and Software Quality: First International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2005, and Second International Workshop on Software Quality, SOQUA 2005, Erfurt, Germany, September 20-22, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3712). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Morandi, C., Rolando, A., & Di Vita, S. (2016). Looking at the Future? In A. Rolando & S. Di Vita (Eds.), From Smart City to Smart Region: Digital Services for an Internet of Places (pp. 93–103). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 17). Africa Has Been Free Of Wild Polio For An Entire Year. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). CH-53E Helicopter (093062). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okada, T. (2012). Corporate culture and organizational efficiency in the competitive international market [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1995, January 20). The Neediest Cases; Chasing Her Dream Through Education. New York Times, 126.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Melton, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Carlip & Vaidya, 2003; Melton, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carlip & Vaidya, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kurin-Csörgei et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Grishchuk et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Adolescence and Youth
AbbreviationInt. J. Adolesc. Youth
ISSN (print)0267-3843
ISSN (online)2164-4527
ScopeHealth(social science)

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