How to format your references using the International Journal of Adolescence and Youth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sloboda, J. (2014). Q&A: Melodic psychologist. Interview by Jascha Hoffman. Nature, 506(7489), 433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymond, P. A., & Cole, J. J. (2003). Increase in the export of alkalinity from North America’s largest river. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5629), 88–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cossart, R., Aronov, D., & Yuste, R. (2003). Attractor dynamics of network UP states in the neocortex. Nature, 423(6937), 283–288.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsai, P.-I., Course, M. M., Lovas, J. R., Hsieh, C.-H., Babic, M., Zinsmaier, K. E., & Wang, X. (2014). PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Miro inhibits synaptic growth and protects dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila. Scientific Reports, 4, 6962.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shi, Y., Liu, M., & Fang, F. (2017). Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Crowhurst, M. (Ed.). (2015). Beginning Teachers: Reviewing Disastrous Lessons. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Farrugia, K., & Caramona, M. (2016). Transitional Care: Caring Across the Interface. In L. Grech & A. Lau (Eds.), Pharmaceutical Care Issues of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: From Hospital to Community (pp. 71–78). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 19). Chemistry Life Hacks. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Aviation Weather: FAA Needs to Resolve Questions Involving the Use of New Radars (No. RCED-90-17). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kweider, N. M. (2014). Reading comprehension among Arabic Heritage Language Learners and the Simple View of Reading model (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. (2014, November 20). A Hammer Comes Down on an Honor for Britain. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sloboda, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Raymond & Cole, 2003; Sloboda, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raymond & Cole, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Cossart, Aronov, & Yuste, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tsai et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Adolescence and Youth
AbbreviationInt. J. Adolesc. Youth
ISSN (print)0267-3843
ISSN (online)2164-4527
ScopeHealth(social science)

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