How to format your references using the International Journal of Adolescence and Youth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, D. R. (2008). Geology. Dreams of natural streams. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5861), 291–292.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blake, G. A., & Bergin, E. A. (2015). Planetary science: Prebiotic chemistry on the rocks. Nature, 520(7546), 161–162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morford, S. L., Houlton, B. Z., & Dahlgren, R. A. (2011). Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock. Nature, 477(7362), 78–81.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chelton, D. B., Schlax, M. G., Freilich, M. H., & Milliff, R. F. (2004). Satellite measurements reveal persistent small-scale features in ocean winds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5660), 978–983.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghiani, G., Laporte, G., & Musmanno, R. (2013). Introduction to Logistics Systems Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Randelli, P., Dejour, D., van Dijk, C. N., Denti, M., & Seil, R. (Eds.). (2016). Arthroscopy: Basic to Advanced. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Möser, M., & Barros, J. L. (2009). Aislamiento elástico. In J. L. Barros (Ed.), Ingeniería Acústica: Teoría y Aplicaciones (pp. 141–166). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Adolescence and Youth.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 22). Rewilding Isn’t About Nostalgia – Exciting New Worlds Are Possible. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Additional Cost Transparency and Design Criteria Needed for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Projects (No. GAO-11-364R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coughenour, B. M. (2014). Photovoltaic concentrator optical system design: Solar energy engineering from physics to field (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, December 5). Giants Are Said to Set Record (For Now) for Closer. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Blake & Bergin, 2015; Montgomery, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blake & Bergin, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Morford, Houlton, & Dahlgren, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chelton, Schlax, Freilich, & Milliff, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Adolescence and Youth
AbbreviationInt. J. Adolesc. Youth
ISSN (print)0267-3843
ISSN (online)2164-4527
ScopeHealth(social science)

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