How to format your references using the International Journal for Quality Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Quality Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grabowsky, M. (2008). The billion-dollar malaria moment. Nature, 451(7182), 1051–1052.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns, N. Z., & Jacobsen, E. N. (2012). Organic chemistry: catalysis in tight spaces. Nature, 483(7389), 278–279.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan, F., Depew, R., & Soltis-Muth, C. (2014). Ecosystem regime change inferred from the distribution of trace metals in Lake Erie sediments. Scientific Reports, 4, 7265.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shav-Tal, Y., Darzacq, X., Shenoy, S. M., Fusco, D., Janicki, S. M., Spector, D. L., & Singer, R. H. (2004). Dynamics of single mRNPs in nuclei of living cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678), 1797–1800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferdjallah, M. (2011). Introduction to Digital Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ikhmayies, S. J., Li, B., Carpenter, J. S., Hwang, J.-Y., Monteiro, S. N., Li, J., Firrao, D., Zhang, M., Peng, Z., Escobedo-Diaz, J. P., & Bai, C. (Eds.). (2016). Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials 2016. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lozovanu, D., & Pickl, S. (2015). Errata to: Optimization of Stochastic Discrete Systems and Control on Complex Networks. In S. Pickl (Ed.), Optimization of Stochastic Discrete Systems and Control on Complex Networks: Computational Networks (pp. E1–E4). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Quality Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, March 21). This Incredible Futuristic Hoverbike Is Like Something Straight Out Of Star Wars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Consolidated Student Loans: Borrowers Benefit but Costs to Them and the Government Grow (HRD-90-8). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, J. (2015). Screening for Allelopathic Potential and Self Facilitation in Japanese Hops (Humulus japonicus, Cannabaceae) [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyons, M., & Poniewozik, J. (2016, August 24). Oh, TV of Little Faith. New York Times, AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grabowsky, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Burns & Jacobsen, 2012; Grabowsky, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burns & Jacobsen, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Yuan et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shav-Tal et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Quality Research
ISSN (print)1800-6450
ISSN (online)1800-7473

Other styles