How to format your references using the International Journal for Quality Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Quality Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bouwmeester, D. (2014). Quantum mechanics. The quantum nondemolition derby. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6189), 1224–1226.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tran, A. P., & Silver, J. (2015). Neuroscience. Systemically treating spinal cord injury. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6232), 285–286.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brennan, M. D., Cheong, R., & Levchenko, A. (2012). Systems biology. How information theory handles cell signaling and uncertainty. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6105), 334–335.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Beck, P., Gillet, P., El Goresy, A., & Mostefaoui, S. (2005). Timescales of shock processes in chondritic and martian meteorites. Nature, 435(7045), 1071–1074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hogan, K. (2008). The Secret Language of Business. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Plaisance, K. S., & Reydon, T. A. C. (Eds.). (2012). Philosophy of Behavioral Biology (Vol. 282). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Merkel, R., Dittmann, J., & Vielhauer, C. (2011). Approximation of a Mathematical Aging Function for Latent Fingerprint Traces Based on First Experiments Using a Chromatic White Light (CWL) Sensor and the Binary Pixel Aging Feature. In B. D. Decker, J. Lapon, V. Naessens, & A. Uhl (Eds.), Communications and Multimedia Security: 12th IFIP TC 6 / TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2011, Ghent, Belgium, October 19-21,2011. Proceedings (pp. 59–71). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Quality Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, May 12). Ghost Ship Washes Up On Liberian Coast With Crew Missing. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Hispanic Dropouts and Federal Programs (PEMD-94-18R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Willhite, D. G. (2001). Purification, Identification, and Partial Characterization of Proteins Associated with the Adaptive Immune Response to Soluble Protein Antigen in the American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 2). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; CLINTON SAYS BUSH IMPERILS ELDERLY. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bouwmeester, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bouwmeester, 2014; Tran & Silver, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tran & Silver, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Brennan et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Beck et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Quality Research
ISSN (print)1800-6450
ISSN (online)1800-7473

Other styles