How to format your references using the International Journal for Educational Integrity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Educational Integrity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lakhdar ZB (2005) Global voices of science. Following the light: opening doors to science in Tunisia. Science 310:1435–1437
A journal article with 2 authors
Hajnóczky G, Hoek JB (2007) Cell signaling. Mitochondrial longevity pathways. Science 315:607–609
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-David O, Cohen G, Fineberg J (2010) The dynamics of the onset of frictional slip. Science 330:211–214
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Boratyński Z, Lehmann P, Mappes T, et al (2014) Increased radiation from Chernobyl decreases the expression of red colouration in natural populations of bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Sci Rep 4:7141

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Almeida JPM, Maunder EAW (2017) Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ehrenpreis ED, Avital S, Singer M (eds) (2012) Anal and Rectal Diseases: A Concise Manual. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
DoVale JC, Fritsche-Neto R (2015) Root Phenomics. In: Fritsche-Neto R, Borém A (eds) Phenomics: How Next-Generation Phenotyping is Revolutionizing Plant Breeding. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 49–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Educational Integrity.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) What We Learned At Behavior 2015. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Economies Obtainable by Increasing Days at Sea of Oceanographic Research and Survey Ships. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cubarrubia AP (2009) Exploring the influence of external standards of institutional effectiveness on program assessment in student affairs. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) U.S. Loss Reveals a Shrinking Talent Gap. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lakhdar 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Lakhdar 2005; Hajnóczky and Hoek 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hajnóczky and Hoek 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Boratyński et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Educational Integrity
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Integr.
ISSN (online)1833-2595

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