How to format your references using the International Journal for Educational Integrity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Educational Integrity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Avise JC (2001) Evolving genomic metaphors: a new look at the language of DNA. Science 294:86–87
A journal article with 2 authors
Daw ND, Dayan P (2004) Neuroscience. Matchmaking. Science 304:1753–1754
A journal article with 3 authors
Kender S, Yu J, Peck VL (2014) Deep ocean carbonate ion increase during mid Miocene CO2 decline. Sci Rep 4:4187
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dubrova YE, Bersimbaev RI, Djansugurova LB, et al (2002) Nuclear weapons tests and human germline mutation rate. Science 295:1037

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Bagotsky V, M. Skundin A, M. Volfkovich Y (2014) Electrochemical Power Sources. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lachapelle J-M (2009) Patch Testing and Prick Testing: A Practical Guide Official Publication of the ICDRG, Second Edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Meissner S, Walewski JW (2013) Guidance to the ARM: Overview. In: Bassi A, Bauer M, Fiedler M, et al. (eds) Enabling Things to Talk: Designing IoT solutions with the IoT Architectural Reference Model. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Educational Integrity.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2015) White Dwarf Has Rare Ring System After Ripping An Asteroid Apart. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Rail Transportation: Federal Railroad Administration’s Safety Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Julian A (2017) Guided Autobiography Themes for Older Adult United States War Veterans. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Despite Security Measures, Concert Arenas Present ‘Target-Rich’ Environments. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Avise 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Avise 2001; Daw and Dayan 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Daw and Dayan 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Dubrova et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Educational Integrity
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Integr.
ISSN (online)1833-2595

Other styles