How to format your references using the International Journal for Educational Integrity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Educational Integrity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cairns BR (2009) The logic of chromatin architecture and remodelling at promoters. Nature 461:193–198
A journal article with 2 authors
Enyeart PJ, Ellington AD (2011) Synthetic biology: a yeast for all reasons. Nature 477:413–414
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins FS, Morgan M, Patrinos A (2003) The Human Genome Project: lessons from large-scale biology. Science 300:286–290
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ming Y, Tan A-H, Wu Z-J, et al (2014) Tailoring entanglement through domain engineering in a lithium niobate waveguide. Sci Rep 4:4812

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leach M, Drummond M, Doig A (2013) Practical Flow Cytometry in Haematology Diagnosis. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Lin P-CK (2014) Logic Synthesis for Genetic Diseases: Modeling Disease Behavior Using Boolean Networks. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Muller J-M, Brisebarre N, de Dinechin F, et al (2010) The Fused Multiply-Add Instruction. In: Brisebarre N, de Dinechin F, Jeannerod C-P, et al. (eds) Handbook of Floating-Point Arithmetic. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp 151–179

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Educational Integrity.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Skydiver Almost Hit by Meteorite. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, But Key Systems at Risk. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrath PM (2013) Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J, Kitsantonis N (2017) European Union Sets $9.5 Billion Agreement On Huge Greek Debt. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cairns 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Cairns 2009; Enyeart and Ellington 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enyeart and Ellington 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ming et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Educational Integrity
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Integr.
ISSN (online)1833-2595

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