How to format your references using the International Journal for Educational Integrity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Educational Integrity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkins K (2014) For the love of ferns. Science 346:1586
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelleher RJ 3rd, Shen J (2010) Genetics. Gamma-secretase and human disease. Science 330:1055–1056
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuster JM, Bodner M, Kroger JK (2000) Cross-modal and cross-temporal association in neurons of frontal cortex. Nature 405:347–351
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gao P, Xing X, Li Y, et al (2014) Charging and discharging of single colloidal particles at oil/water interfaces. Sci Rep 4:4778

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simpkins CA, Simpkins AM (2011) Zen Meditation in Psychotherapy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Farage MA, Miller KW, Maibach HI (eds) (2010) Textbook of Aging Skin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bandyopadhyay S, Saha S (2013) Point Symmetry-Based Distance Measures and Their Applications to Clustering. In: Saha S (ed) Unsupervised Classification: Similarity Measures, Classical and Metaheuristic Approaches, and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 93–123

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Educational Integrity.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Curiosity Takes A Deeper Look At The Sand Dunes Of Mars. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) SSA’s Acceptance Testing of a Mass Storage System for Computerized Data Was Adequate. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rajendran N (2010) Assessment of upper extremity strength, power, and flexibility characteristics of college-aged male and female students. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen J, Rosenberg M (2017) President Wants Ally to Review U.S. Spy Agencies. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkins 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kelleher and Shen 2010; Perkins 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelleher and Shen 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Educational Integrity
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Integr.
ISSN (online)1833-2595

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