How to format your references using the International Journal for Educational Integrity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Educational Integrity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holdren JP (2005) Retrospective. Joseph Rotblat (1908-2005). Science 310:633
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer PI, Smith MJ (2014) Earth systems: Model human adaptation to climate change. Nature 512:365–366
A journal article with 3 authors
Grover T, Sheng DN, Vishwanath A (2014) Emergent space-time supersymmetry at the boundary of a topological phase. Science 344:280–283
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Negoro H, Lutz SE, Liou LS, et al (2013) Pannexin 1 involvement in bladder dysfunction in a multiple sclerosis model. Sci Rep 3:2152

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau D, Fatu A, Souchet D (2014) Internal Combustion Engine Bearings Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Morava E, Baumgartner M, Patterson M, et al (eds) (2016) JIMD Reports, Volume 30, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Murty MN, Panda M (2016) Current Status of Environmental and Economic Accounting: Review of Some Countries Experiences and Way Forward for India. In: Ghosh N, Mukhopadhyay P, Shah A, Panda M (eds) Nature, Economy and Society: Understanding the Linkages. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 51–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Educational Integrity.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Want More Girls To Be Interested In Computer Science? Change Some Classroom Stereotypes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Success of the Programed School Input Program Justifies Expansion. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKinley KJ (2009) Exploring the efficiency and effectiveness of teacher selection tools: The effects on the total group with a focus on the experience sub-groups. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Berger J (2014) Officer Kills Man After Stabbing in Synagogue. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holdren 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Holdren 2005; Palmer and Smith 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palmer and Smith 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Negoro et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Educational Integrity
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Integr.
ISSN (online)1833-2595

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