How to format your references using the Educational Media International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Media International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Asphaug, E. (2004). Planetary science. Nothing simple about asteroids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1489–1492.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, N., & DiCarlo, J. J. (2008). Unsupervised natural experience rapidly alters invariant object representation in visual cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5895), 1502–1507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell, G., Hey, T., & Szalay, A. (2009). Computer science. Beyond the data deluge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1297–1298.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ricardo, A., Carrigan, M. A., Olcott, A. N., & Benner, S. A. (2004). Borate minerals stabilize ribose. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ravindran, K. (2014). The Mathematics of Financial Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ivancevic, T. T. (2009). Complex Sports Biodynamics: With Practical Applications in Tennis (B. Jovanovic, S. Djukic, M. Djukic, & S. Markovic, Eds.; Vol. 2). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lipinski, P. (2012). Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms for Stock Market Trading Rule Selection on Many-Core Graphics Processors. In A. Brabazon, M. O’Neill, & D. Maringer (Eds.), Natural Computing in Computational Finance: Volume 4 (pp. 79–92). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Media International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, June 5). What Will Happen When Antibiotics Stop Working? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2008 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (GAO-09-90R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robles, S. (2013). Transient over-voltages generated by solar photovoltaic inverters [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, February 17). Honing Their Chances With Photos and Wit. New York Times, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Asphaug, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Asphaug, 2004; Li & DiCarlo, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li & DiCarlo, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Bell et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ricardo et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Media International
AbbreviationEMI Educ. Media Int.
ISSN (print)0952-3987
ISSN (online)1469-5790

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