How to format your references using the Educational Media International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Media International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Templeton, A. (2002). Out of Africa again and again. Nature, 416(6876), 45–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cress, C. D., & Datta, S. (2013). Engineering. Nanoscale transistors--just around the gate? Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6142), 140–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morse, S. S., Garwin, R. L., & Olsiewski, P. J. (2006). Public health. Next flu pandemic: what to do until the vaccine arrives? Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5801), 929.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Williams, A. G., Rayson, M. P., Jubb, M., World, M., Woods, D. R., Hayward, M., … Montgomery, H. E. (2000). The ACE gene and muscle performance. Nature, 403(6770), 614.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, H. S. L. C. (2012). Performance Based Building Design 2. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kaastra, J. (Ed.). (2008). Clusters of Galaxies: Beyond the Thermal View. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmitz-Valckenberg, S., Fleckenstein, M., Spaide, R., & Holz, F. G. (2010). Autofluorescence Imaging. In F. G. Holz & R. Spaide (Eds.), Medical Retina: Focus on Retinal Imaging (pp. 41–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Media International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 25). Traces of Neanderthal Virus DNA Found in Modern Human Genomes. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Improvements Can Be Made in the Fiscal Management of CETA (No. HRD-82-53). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holvick-Norton, T. (2015). Becoming Whole: The Process of Individuation for Women and Their Bodies (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. (2014, November 16). Man of War. New York Times, p. BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helmuth, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman, 2004; Gewin, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cress & Datta, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Morse, Garwin, & Olsiewski, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Suenaga et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Media International
AbbreviationEMI Educ. Media Int.
ISSN (print)0952-3987
ISSN (online)1469-5790

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