How to format your references using the Educational Media International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Media International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D. (2000). PHILANTHROPY: Moore Foundation Targets Science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5496), 1481b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Somerville, M. A., & Atlas, R. M. (2005). Ethics: a weapon to counter bioterrorism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5717), 1881–1882.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaminski, J., Call, J., & Fischer, J. (2004). Word learning in a domestic dog: evidence for “fast mapping.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1682–1683.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Eckstein-Ludwig, U., Webb, R. J., Van Goethem, I. D. A., East, J. M., Lee, A. G., Kimura, M., … Krishna, S. (2003). Artemisinins target the SERCA of Plasmodium falciparum. Nature, 424(6951), 957–961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Price, J. (2010). The Conscious Investor. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ariola, M. (2016). Magnetic Control of Tokamak Plasmas. (A. Pironti, Ed.) (2nd ed. 2016). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nath, V., & Levinson, S. E. (2014). Robot Kinematics. In S. E. Levinson (Ed.), Autonomous Robotics and Deep Learning (pp. 25–30). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Media International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 29). Completely Blind People Still Able To React To Light. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve the Implementation and Use of Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Major System Acquisitions (No. GAO-10-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Venegas Carro, G. I. (2017). The Slow Movements of Anton Bruckner’s Symphonies: Dialogical Perspectives (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland, R. (2017, January 20). Russia Signs Agreement Expanding Syrian Bases. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff, 2000; Somerville & Atlas, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Somerville & Atlas, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Kaminski, Call, & Fischer, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Eckstein-Ludwig et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Media International
AbbreviationEMI Educ. Media Int.
ISSN (print)0952-3987
ISSN (online)1469-5790

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