How to format your references using the Educational Media International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Media International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson, M. (2015). Test the effects of ash on jet engines. Nature, 520(7546), 133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boles, M. A., & Talapin, D. V. (2014). Chemistry. Connecting the dots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6190), 1340–1341.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kessler, D., Gase, K., & Baldwin, I. T. (2008). Field experiments with transformed plants reveal the sense of floral scents. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5893), 1200–1202.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, X., Raja, W. K., An, B., Tokareva, O., Cebe, P., & Kaplan, D. L. (2013). Stability of silk and collagen protein materials in space. Scientific Reports, 3, 3428.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burkinshaw, S. M. (2016). Physico-chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kovacevic, R. M., Pflug, G. C., & Vespucci, M. T. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of Risk Management in Energy Production and Trading (Vol. 199). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Thiagalingam, S., & Faller, D. V. (2008). The Cancer Epigenome. In H. L. Kaufman, S. Wadler, & K. Antman (Eds.), Molecular Targeting in Oncology (pp. 97–113). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Media International.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 13). Frozen Poop Pills Could Fight Deadly Infections. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Federal Research: Final Site Selection Process for DOE’s Super Collider (RCED-89-129BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Y. (2009). Extreme value estimators: Their long memory feature and forecasting performances in the U.S. stock indexes [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2010, February 9). A World Of Words Reinvented In Pictures. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boles & Talapin, 2014; Watson, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boles & Talapin, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kessler et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Media International
AbbreviationEMI Educ. Media Int.
ISSN (print)0952-3987
ISSN (online)1469-5790

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