How to format your references using the Educational Media International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Media International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon, K. (2014). Gene therapy: editorial control. Nature, 515(7526), S11-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibbons, G. W., & Shellard, E. P. S. (2002). Cosmology. Tales of singularities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5559), 1476–1477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Y., Peng, R., & You, Z. (2015). APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6246), 396–400.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, A., Ren, X., An, M., Zhang, J., Yang, P., Wang, B., Zhu, Y., & Wang, C. (2014). A combined theoretical and experimental study for silver electroplating. Scientific Reports, 4, 3837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheer, J. (2010). Failed Bridges. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Joye, M., & Tunstall, M. (Eds.). (2012). Fault Analysis in Cryptography. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jalabert, A., Amara, A., & Clermidy, F. (2008). Presentation of the Molecular Memory Cell. In A. Amara & F. Clermidy (Eds.), Molecular Electronics Materials, Devices and Applications (pp. 113–126). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Media International.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, June 11). Herpes Infected Our Ancestors Before They Were Human. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Public Transportation: Washington Metro Could Benefit from Clarified Board Roles and Responsibilities, Improved Strategic Planning (GAO-11-660). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spidell, R. M. (2017). Reexamining Richard Strauss’s Second Horn Concerto as a Significant Contribution to Twentieth-Century Music [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017, September 1). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gammon, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gammon, 2014; Gibbons & Shellard, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gibbons & Shellard, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Chen et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Media International
AbbreviationEMI Educ. Media Int.
ISSN (print)0952-3987
ISSN (online)1469-5790

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