How to format your references using the International Journal for Academic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Academic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hertz, N. (2009). Recession Watch: Cooperation must rule. Nature, 457(7232), 962–963.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, D. W. J., & Solomon, S. (2002). Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5569), 895–899.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, D., Searles, M. A., & Klug, A. (2003). Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition. Nature, 426(6962), 96–100.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Doan, T., Mendez, A., Detwiler, P. B., Chen, J., & Rieke, F. (2006). Multiple phosphorylation sites confer reproducibility of the rod’s single-photon responses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5786), 530–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moir, I., & Seabridge, A. G. (2006). Military Avionics Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Meng, L., Reichenbacher, T., & Zipf, A. (Eds.). (2005). Map-based Mobile Services: Theories, Methods and Implementations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Furneaux, B. (2012). Task-Technology Fit Theory: A Survey and Synopsis of the Literature. In Y. K. Dwivedi, M. R. Wade, & S. L. Schneberger (Eds.), Information Systems Theory: Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society, Vol. 1 (pp. 87–106). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Academic Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 1). Meet The World’s Most-Traded, Least-Known Mammal. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). The NASA Fiscal Year 1985 Budget Requests That Support DOD Programs (No. NSIAD-84-120). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hood, E. P. (2015). Male teacher perspective on the recruitment of male elementary teachers: A phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010, February 7). Charleston Chews And Sugar Babies: Fistfuls of Nostalgia. New York Times, p. NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hertz, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hertz, 2009; Thompson & Solomon, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson & Solomon, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lu, Searles, & Klug, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Doan, Mendez, Detwiler, Chen, & Rieke, 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Academic Development
ISSN (print)1360-144X
ISSN (online)1470-1324

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