How to format your references using the International Journal for Academic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Academic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flannery, T. (2001). Geology. North American devastation or global cataclysm? Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5547), 1668–1669.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahakian, B., & Morein-Zamir, S. (2007). Professor’s little helper. Nature, 450(7173), 1157–1159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, L. Q., Cheley, S., & Bayley, H. (2001). Capture of a single molecule in a nanocavity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5504), 636–640.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vlasov, Y. A., O’Boyle, M., Hamann, H. F., & McNab, S. J. (2005). Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature, 438(7064), 65–69.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Passarelli, D. (2012). Trading Options Greeks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Short, T., & Harris, R. (Eds.). (2014). Workforce Development: Strategies and Practices. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bliem, B., Pichler, R., & Woltran, S. (2013). Declarative Dynamic Programming as an Alternative Realization of Courcelle’s Theorem. In G. Gutin & S. Szeider (Eds.), Parameterized and Exact Computation: 8th International Symposium, IPEC 2013, Sophia Antipolis, France, September 4-6, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 28–40). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Academic Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 30). Scientists Take Step Forward In Quest To Convert Carbon Dioxide To Biofuel. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Automated Systems: Legislative Branch Opportunity for Sharing Payroll/Personnel Systems (IMTEC-89-23). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, N. (2015). Computational Studies on Biomolecular Diffusion and Electrostatics [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009, October 18). Weather Doesn’t Dampen Latest Heart-Stopper in the Bronx. New York Times, SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flannery, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Flannery, 2001; Sahakian & Morein-Zamir, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sahakian & Morein-Zamir, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Gu et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Vlasov et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Academic Development
ISSN (print)1360-144X
ISSN (online)1470-1324

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