How to format your references using the International Journal for Academic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Academic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2012). Science should be ready to jump off “the cliff.” Nature, 491(7426), 639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro, E., & Gil, B. (2008). Cell biology. RNA computing in a living cell. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5900), 387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, B.-S., Noda, S., & Asano, T. (2003). Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5625), 1537.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bearhop, S., Fiedler, W., Furness, R. W., Votier, S. C., Waldron, S., Newton, J., Bowen, G. J., Berthold, P., & Farnsworth, K. (2005). Assortative mating as a mechanism for rapid evolution of a migratory divide. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 502–504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., & Rahman, M. A. (2010). An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Buchberger, B., Affenzeller, M., Ferscha, A., Haller, M., Jebelean, T., Klement, E. P., Paule, P., Pomberger, G., Schreiner, W., Stubenrauch, R., Wagner, R., Weiß, G., & Windsteiger, W. (Eds.). (2009). Hagenberg Research. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bergeron, M., & Conklin, D. (2009). Temporal Patterns in Polyphony. In E. Chew, A. Childs, & C.-H. Chuan (Eds.), Mathematics and Computation in Music: Second International Conference, MCM 2009, John Clough Memorial Conference New Haven, CT, USA, June 19-22, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 32–42). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Academic Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 21). Playing With Fire: The Economics And Network Of Fire And Haze. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). DOD Business Systems Modernization: Progress Continues to Be Made in Establishing Corporate Management Controls, but Further Steps Are Needed (GAO-07-733). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeVito, M. A. (2015). Facebook Family Values: A News Feed Hierarchy Of Needs [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2006, July 16). <hl2 class=. New York Times, AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2012; Shapiro & Gil, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapiro & Gil, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Song et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bearhop et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Academic Development
ISSN (print)1360-144X
ISSN (online)1470-1324

Other styles