How to format your references using the International Journal for Academic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Academic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chipman, A. (2007). Contest puts brakes on carbon capture. Nature, 447(7148), 1044–1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark, P. U., & Mix, A. C. (2000). Ice sheets by volume. Nature, 406(6797), 689–690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaucher, E. A., Govindarajan, S., & Ganesh, O. K. (2008). Palaeotemperature trend for Precambrian life inferred from resurrected proteins. Nature, 451(7179), 704–707.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Antonaglia, J., Xie, X., Schwarz, G., Wraith, M., Qiao, J., Zhang, Y., Liaw, P. K., Uhl, J. T., & Dahmen, K. A. (2014). Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses. Scientific Reports, 4, 4382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stegmann, J. P. (2009). Strategic Value Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zeng, J., Zhang, R.-Q., & Treutlein, H. R. (Eds.). (2012). Quantum Simulations of Materials and Biological Systems. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Penkova, T. (2014). Method of Wellbeing Estimation in Territory Management. In B. Murgante, S. Misra, A. M. A. C. Rocha, C. Torre, J. G. Rocha, M. I. Falcão, D. Taniar, B. O. Apduhan, & O. Gervasi (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2014: 14th International Conference, Guimarães, Portugal, June 30 – July 3, 2014, Proceedings, Part IV (pp. 57–68). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Academic Development.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, September 20). Contaminated Water Drains Into Florida Aquifer After Sinkhole Opens Up. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Telecommunications: Preliminary Information on Media Ownership (GAO-08-330R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeVito, M. A. (2015). Facebook Family Values: A News Feed Hierarchy Of Needs [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017, June 27). Dozens Said To Be Killed In Bombing Of ISIS Prison. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chipman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Chipman, 2007; Clark & Mix, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark & Mix, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Gaucher et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Antonaglia et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Academic Development
ISSN (print)1360-144X
ISSN (online)1470-1324

Other styles