How to format your references using the International Journal for Academic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Academic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tian, P. (2015). Research impact: A tale of two systems. Nature, 520(7549), S28-30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spalding, M. D., & Brown, B. E. (2015). Warm-water coral reefs and climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6262), 769–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frederickson, M. E., Greene, M. J., & Gordon, D. M. (2005). Ecology: “Devil’s gardens” bedevilled by ants. Nature, 437(7058), 495–496.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, L., Li, T., Guo, R. Y., Xia, W., Xu, X. G., & Zhu, S. N. (2013). Active display and encoding by integrated plasmonic polarizer on light-emitting-diode. Scientific Reports, 3, 2603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carvalho, M. C. (2016). Practical Laboratory Automation. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Churchill, D., Lu, J., Chiu, T. K. F., & Fox, B. (Eds.). (2016). Mobile Learning Design: Theories and Application. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dillmann, W. H. (2009). Mechanism of Action of Thyroid Hormone on the Cardiac Vascular System. In G. Iervasi & A. Pingitore (Eds.), Thyroid and Heart Failure: From Pathophysiology to Clinics (pp. 45–54). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Academic Development.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 13). Teenage Pot Users Show Poor Long-Term Memory as Adults. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Transportation Infrastructure: Highway Pavement Design Guide Is Outdated (RCED-98-9). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stitt, C. R. (2008). Differences in theoretical constructs of processing health information in narrative entertainment television messages [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 13). Cubs Send Nationals to Their Latest Early Exit. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Spalding & Brown, 2015; Tian, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spalding & Brown, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Frederickson et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Academic Development
ISSN (print)1360-144X
ISSN (online)1470-1324

Other styles