How to format your references using the International Emergency Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Emergency Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zuber MT. The crust and mantle of Mars. Nature 2001;412:220–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegazy AN, Powrie F. MICROBIOME. Microbiota RORgulates intestinal suppressor T cells. Science 2015;349:929–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bieber FR, Brenner CH, Lazer D. Human genetics. Finding criminals through DNA of their relatives. Science 2006;312:1315–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baroni M, Thiemens MH, Delmas RJ, Savarino J. Mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions in stratospheric volcanic eruptions. Science 2007;315:84–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furger C. Live Cell Assays. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Dubois E, Gray P, Nigay L, editors. The Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Cassidy MJ, Daganzo CF, Jang K, Chung K. Spatiotemporal Effects of Segregating Different Vehicle Classes on Separate Lanes. In: Lam WHK, Wong SC, Lo HK, editors. Transportation and Traffic Theory 2009: Golden Jubilee: Papers selected for presentation at ISTTT18, a peer reviewed series since 1959, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009, p. 57–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Emergency Nursing.

Blog post
Luntz S. Vaccines Work Better When Injected In The Morning, Claims Study. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loans: Legislative and Regulatory Changes Needed To Reduce Default Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis K. Manifesting archetypal energy through music. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Is It a Fight Over Fast Food Or the People Who Eat It? New York Times 2002:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Emergency Nursing
AbbreviationInt. Emerg. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1755-599X

Other styles