How to format your references using the International Emergency Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Emergency Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFadden P. Tech.Sight. Biosensors. Broadband biodetection: Holmes on a chip. Science 2002;297:2075–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson EB, Harrison TM. Zircon thermometer reveals minimum melting conditions on earliest Earth. Science 2005;308:841–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell FI, McEwen IJ, Viney C. Fibre science: supercontraction stress in wet spider dragline. Nature 2002;416:37.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thaiss CA, Levy M, Grosheva I, Zheng D, Soffer E, Blacher E, et al. Hyperglycemia drives intestinal barrier dysfunction and risk for enteric infection. Science 2018;359:1376–83.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hayward A, Weare F. Steel Detailers’ Manual. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Schuur EAG, Druffel E, Trumbore SE, editors. Radiocarbon and Climate Change: Mechanisms, Applications and Laboratory Techniques. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed R, Faisal NH, Ali O, Al-Anazi NM, Al-Mutairi S, Mamour S, et al. Microstructural Evaluation of Suspension Thermally Sprayed WC-Co Nanocomposite Coatings. In: Polychroniadis EK, Oral AY, Ozer M, editors. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress: Proceedings of InterM, October 16-19, 2014, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 31–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Emergency Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. Childhood Health Improves Following Closure of Chinese Coal-Burning Power Plant. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Funding: Problems With Highway Trust Fund Information Can Affect State Highway Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lorentz J. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Observing the Journey of a Lacrosse Pioneer, McPhee Style. New York Times 2011:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Emergency Nursing
AbbreviationInt. Emerg. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1755-599X

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