How to format your references using the International Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, B.J., 2003. Development. Wiring the brain with insulin. Science 300, 440–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Suter, D.M., Schibler, U., 2009. Physiology. Feeding the clock. Science 326, 378–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoemaker, H.E., Mink, D., Wubbolts, M.G., 2003. Dispelling the myths--biocatalysis in industrial synthesis. Science 299, 1694–1697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kucharski, R., Maleszka, J., Foret, S., Maleszka, R., 2008. Nutritional control of reproductive status in honeybees via DNA methylation. Science 319, 1827–1830.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry, J.-F., Brînzei, N., 2015. Systems Dependability Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hofmann, E., 2014. Performance Measurement and Incentive Systems in Purchasing: More Than Just Savings, Professional Supply Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y., Holtman, C.K., Taton, A., Golden, S.S., 2012. Functional Analysis of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 Genome, in: Burnap, R., Vermaas, W. (Eds.), Functional Genomics and Evolution of Photosynthetic Systems, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 119–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Will The Presidential Candidates Have A Substantive Debate On Climate Change? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems (No. GAO-08-79). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gross, J., 2010. High-performance dram system design constraints and considerations (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. Puerto Rico Debt Plan Prioritizes Pensions. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson, 2003; Suter and Schibler, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Suter and Schibler, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kucharski et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Economics
ISSN (print)2110-7017
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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