How to format your references using the International Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sackett, C.A., 2014. Quantum physics: An atomic SQUID. Nature 505, 166–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, C.R., Baker, L.A., 2005. Materials science. Expanding the molecular electronics toolbox. Science 309, 67–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen, H.C., Herman, M.A., Clevers, H.C., 2000. Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature 406, 527–532.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Long, J.C., Chan, H.W., Churnside, A.B., Gulbis, E.A., Varney, M.C.M., Price, J.C., 2003. Upper limits to submillimetre-range forces from extra space-time dimensions. Nature 421, 922–925.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maksoud, M.A., 2017. Quick Reference to Dental Implant Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Grasser, T., Selberherr, S. (Eds.), 2007. Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices 2007: SISPAD 2007. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Levitan, M.A., Lavrushin, Y.A., 2009. The Late Glacial Time and Holocene of Northern Eurasia, in: Lavrushin, Y.A. (Ed.), Sedimentation History in the Arctic Ocean and Subarctic Seas for the Last 130 Kyr, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Economics.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce, H., 2017. Researchers Believe They Have Solved The 400 Year Old Mystery Of Prince Rupert’s Drops [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Training and Education Programs for Civilian Employees in the Federal Government (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, R.U., 2015. A Risk Analysis Tool for Evaluating ROI of TRA for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. As Storm Exits, Paths Lead to Open. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sackett, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Martin and Baker, 2005; Sackett, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Baker, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Long et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Economics
ISSN (print)2110-7017
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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