How to format your references using the International Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baughman, R.H., 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: Putting a New Spin on Carbon Nanotubes. Science 290, 1310–1311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns, N.Z., Jacobsen, E.N., 2012. Organic chemistry: catalysis in tight spaces. Nature 483, 278–279.
A journal article with 3 authors
Croon, M.B., Hillier, J.K., Sclater, J.G., 2011. Comment on “Mantle flow drives the subsidence of oceanic plates.” Science 331, 1011; author reply 1011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, Y., Jessop, P.G., Cunningham, M., Eckert, C.A., Liotta, C.L., 2006. Switchable surfactants. Science 313, 958–960.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arthur D. Little, Inc., 2010. Making EHS an Integral Part of Process Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wagg, D.J., Virgin, L. (Eds.), 2012. Exploiting Nonlinear Behavior in Structural Dynamics, CISM Courses and Lectures. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Lupu, M., Huang, J., Zhu, J., 2011. Evaluation of Chemical Information Retrieval Tools, in: Lupu, M., Mayer, K., Tait, J., Trippe, A.J. (Eds.), Current Challenges in Patent Information Retrieval, The Information Retrieval Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 109–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Teenage Girl May Have Developed Hepatitis From Green Tea Bought Online [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Surface Transportation: Issues Associated With Pipeline Regulation by the Surface Transportation Board (No. T-RCED-98-127). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan, M., 2010. Acute physiological resonses to yoga activity in a hot environment (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S., 2013. How To Get a Job With a Philosophy Degree. New York Times MM40.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baughman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Baughman, 2000; Burns and Jacobsen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burns and Jacobsen, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Economics
ISSN (print)2110-7017
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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