How to format your references using the International Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourne, J., 2000. ECOLOGY: Louisiana’s Vanishing Wetlands: Going, Going . Science 289, 1860–1863.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatfield, D., Izaurralde, E., 2004. Nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay is initiated by endonucleolytic cleavage in Drosophila. Nature 429, 575–578.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gregg, M.C., Sanford, T.B., Winkel, D.P., 2003. Reduced mixing from the breaking of internal waves in equatorial waters. Nature 422, 513–515.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ryan, P.G., Bloomer, P., Moloney, C.L., Grant, T.J., Delport, W., 2007. Ecological speciation in South Atlantic island finches. Science 315, 1420–1423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merrills, J., Fisher, J., 2008. Pharmacy Law and Practice. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Rosenberg, E., DeLong, E.F., Lory, S., Stackebrandt, E., Thompson, F. (Eds.), 2014. The Prokaryotes: Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Motomura, Y., Kurata, T., Yamamoto, Y., 2016. Community-Based Participatory Service Engineering: Case Studies and Technologies, in: Kwan, S.K., Spohrer, J.C., Sawatani, Y. (Eds.), Global Perspectives on Service Science: Japan, Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Economics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Dementia Now The Leading Cause Of Death In England And Wales [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Airline Competition: Issues Raised by Consolidation Proposals (No. GAO-01-402T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maitland, J., 2017. Differences in Perceived Organizational Justice Based Upon Overall Performance Appraisal Ratings (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. The Irresistible Attraction of an Assault Rifle. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bourne, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bourne, 2000; Gatfield and Izaurralde, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gatfield and Izaurralde, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ryan et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Economics
ISSN (print)2110-7017
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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