How to format your references using the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. McLaren, Ethical and social considerations of stem cell research, Nature. 414 (2001) 129–131.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Carrete, J.L. Tella, High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3524.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Pompilio, A. Kacelnik, S.T. Behmer, State-dependent learned valuation drives choice in an invertebrate, Science. 311 (2006) 1613–1615.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.H. Waite Jr, D.T. Young, T.E. Cravens, A.J. Coates, F.J. Crary, B. Magee, J. Westlake, The process of tholin formation in Titan’s upper atmosphere, Science. 316 (2007) 870–875.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Reinke, Inorganic Nanostructures, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2012.
An edited book
A.V. Gheorghe, M. Masera, M. Weijnen, D.L. Vries, eds., Critical Infrastructures at Risk: Securing the European Electric Power System, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Whiten, The Evolution of Hominin Culture and Its Ancient Pre-hominin Foundations, in: M.N. Haidle, N.J. Conard, M. Bolus (Eds.), The Nature of Culture: Based on an Interdisciplinary Symposium ‘The Nature of Culture’, Tübingen, Germany, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2016: pp. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.

Blog post
J. Davis, Bizarre Ecosystem Discovered In Which The Predators Vastly Outnumber The Prey, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Projects and Policies Related to Deploying Broadband in Unserved and Underserved Areas, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.C. Rogers, Documenting cultural transition through contact archaeology in Tíhoo, Mérida, Yucatán, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.L. Dorman, A Prolific Architect’s Groundbreaking Roots, New York Times. (2017) TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
AbbreviationInt. J. Heat Mass Transf.
ISSN (print)0017-9310
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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