How to format your references using the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.W. Steed, Materials science. Molecular “ghosts,” Science. 298 (2002) 976–977.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Somerville, R.M. Atlas, Ethics: a weapon to counter bioterrorism, Science. 307 (2005) 1881–1882.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.C. Martin, M. Kaschube, E.F. Wieschaus, Pulsed contractions of an actin-myosin network drive apical constriction, Nature. 457 (2009) 495–499.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Bell, A.A. Duke, P.E. Gilmore, D. Page, L. Bègue, Anxiolytic-like effects observed in rats exposed to the elevated zero-maze following treatment with 5-HT2/5-HT3/5-HT4 ligands, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Hoffmann, System Integration, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
J. Pieprzyk, H. Ghodosi, E. Dawson, eds., Information Security and Privacy: 12th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2007, Townsville, Australia, July 2-4, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Goodyer, Renal Dysplasia/Hypoplasia, in: E. Avner, W. Harmon, P. Niaudet, N. Yoshikawa (Eds.), Pediatric Nephrology: Sixth Completely Revised, Updated and Enlarged Edition, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 107–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Falklands ‘Wolf’ That Baffled Darwin Was Actually More Like A Jackal – New Study, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Transportation: Challenges Facing NASA’s Space Launch Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Dias, Factors associated with poor oral health among older adults, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, When Artist Becomes Muse, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
AbbreviationInt. J. Heat Mass Transf.
ISSN (print)0017-9310
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles