How to format your references using the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Trivedi, Learning from the elite, Nature. 466 (2010) S4.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.A. King, S.M. Thomas, Science and government. Taking science out of the box--foresight recast, Science. 316 (2007) 1701–1702.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.B. Lindenmayer, W.F. Laurance, J.F. Franklin, Ecology. Global decline in large old trees, Science. 338 (2012) 1305–1306.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Hugel, N.B. Holland, A. Cattani, L. Moroder, M. Seitz, H.E. Gaub, Single-molecule optomechanical cycle, Science. 296 (2002) 1103–1106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.A. Armstrong, M.D. Brasier, Microfossils, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA USA, 2004.
An edited book
J.E. Korbin, R.D. Krugman, eds., Handbook of Child Maltreatment, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Ghosh, D. Elenius, W. Li, P. Lincoln, N. Shankar, W. Steiner, ARSENAL: Automatic Requirements Specification Extraction from Natural Language, in: S. Rayadurgam, O. Tkachuk (Eds.), NASA Formal Methods: 8th International Symposium, NFM 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA, June 7-9, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 41–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.

Blog post
J. Fang, New Horned Dino Sported Gnarly Headgear with a Curly Frill, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Transportation: Credit Assistance for Surface Transportation Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.L. Moore, The Challenge Program: A quantitative analysis of strategies designed to eliminate the achievement gap, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, Keeping Outsiders Outside, New York Times. (1998) 149.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
AbbreviationInt. J. Heat Mass Transf.
ISSN (print)0017-9310
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles