How to format your references using the International Archives of Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Archives of Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.V. Balatsky. Superconductivity. From obscurity to impurity. Nature 2000, 403 (6771), 717–718.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Kulmala, T. Petäjä. Geochemistry. Soil nitrites influence atmospheric chemistry. Science 2011, 333 (6049), 1586–1587.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.H. Wall, U.N. Nielsen, J. Six. Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 2015, 528 (7580), 69–76.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
G. Bejerano, M. Pheasant, I. Makunin, et al. Ultraconserved elements in the human genome. Science 2004, 304 (5675), 1321–1325.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Birinyi. The Master Trader; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Environmental Cost and Face of Agriculture in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Fostering Agriculture in the Context of Climate Change; Shahid, S. A., Ahmed, M., Eds.; Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J.-P. Close, J. Schmeitz. New Entrepreneurship. In AiREAS: Sustainocracy for a Healthy City: Phase 3: Civilian Participation – Including the Global Health Deal Proposition; Close, J.-P., Ed.; SpringerBriefs on Case Studies of Sustainable Development; Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016; pp 79–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Archives of Science and Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew. GM Food Labels Do Not Act As A Warning To Consumers (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Central Artery/Tunnel Project Faces Financial Uncertainties; RCED-96-131; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Flores. An exploratory study on widows’ experiences following the loss of their spouse. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner. With New Injury, the Mets’ Training Program Is Again Questioned. New York Times. June 29, 2017, p B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Archives of Science and Technology
ISSN (print)2347-8853

Other styles