How to format your references using the International Archives of Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Archives of Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Seife. ASTRONOMY: Brown Dwarf’s Flare Opens X-ray Eyes. Science 2000, 289 (5478), 373a–374a.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Chiarugi, M.A. Moskowitz. Cell biology. PARP-1--a perpetrator of apoptotic cell death? Science 2002, 297 (5579), 200–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.O. Ghaffari, M.H.B. Nasseri, R.P. Young. Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5011.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
A. Bisazza, B. Butterworth, L. Piffer, et al. Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Phelan. Reading the American Novel 1920-2010; John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Advanced Computer Simulation Approaches for Soft Matter Sciences III; Holm, C., Kremer, K., Eds.; Advances in Polymer Science; Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 221.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Ghazzai, E. Yaacoub, A. Kadri, M.-S. Alouini. Multi-operator Collaboration for Green Cellular Networks. In Energy Management in Wireless Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks; Shakir, M. Z., Imran, M. A., A. Qaraqe, K., Alouini, M.-S., V. Vasilakos, A., Eds.; Studies in Systems, Decision and Control; Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016; pp 97–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Archives of Science and Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew. Number of Measles Cases Linked To Disneyland Continues To Grow (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Gas Pipeline Safety: Guidance and More Information Needed before Using Risk-Based Reassessment Intervals; GAO-13-577; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.-W.D. Liu. Isolation and Characterization of pco-1, which Encodes a Regulatory Protein that Controls Purine Degradation in Neurospora crassa. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Hartocollis. Faculty Questions NYU Langone’s Political Fund-Raising Efforts. New York Times. February 24, 2014, p A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Archives of Science and Technology
ISSN (print)2347-8853

Other styles