How to format your references using the International Archives of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Archives of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Southwood D. Research collaboration: When international partnerships go wrong. Nature. 2012 Aug 23;488(7412):451–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rensberger JM, Watabe M. Fine structure of bone in dinosaurs, birds and mammals. Nature. 2000 Aug 10;406(6796):619–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stephens DW, McLinn CM, Stevens JR. Discounting and reciprocity in an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Science. 2002 Dec 13;298(5601):2216–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Anderson DC, Gill JS, Cinalli RM, Nance J. Polarization of the C. elegans embryo by RhoGAP-mediated exclusion of PAR-6 from cell contacts. Science. 2008 Jun 27;320(5884):1771–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye T. Developing the Reflective Healthcare Team. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Hermann M. Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations: Analytical Approximation and Numerical Methods. Saravi M, editor. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016. XVI, 310 p. 53 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Giorgetti A, Girgenti A, Citti P, Delogu M. A Novel Approach for Axiomatic-Based Design for the Environment. In: Farid AM, Suh NP, editors. Axiomatic Design in Large Systems: Complex Products, Buildings and Manufacturing Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 131–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Archives of Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Scientists Discover New Phase Of Matter. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Preliminary Observations on Legacy Airlines’ Financial Condition, Bankruptcy, and Pension Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jun. Report No.: GAO-05-835T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez G. Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Good Customers, Bad Bill Payers. New York Times. 2009 Dec 17;B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Archives of Medicine
AbbreviationInt. Arch. Med.
ISSN (print)1755-7682
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles