How to format your references using the International Archives of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Archives of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stirling CH. Geochemistry. Keeping time with Earth’s heaviest element. Science. 2012 Mar 30;335(6076):1585–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeConto RM, Pollard D. Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature. 2003 Jan 16;421(6920):245–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Achlioptas D, D’Souza RM, Spencer J. Explosive percolation in random networks. Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1453–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Han S, Tang R, Anderson LK, Woerner TE, Pei ZM. A cell surface receptor mediates extracellular Ca(2+) sensing in guard cells. Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):196–200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgado RLC, Araki M. Spoken, Multilingual and Multimodal Dialogue Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Linsen L, Hagen H, Hamann B, editors. Visualization in Medicine and Life Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. X, 346 p. 162 illus., 35 illus. in color. (Mathematics and Visualization).
A chapter in an edited book
Etemad L, Moshiri M, Moallem SA. Chronic Toxicity of Organophosphorus Compounds. In: Balali-Mood M, Abdollahi M, editors. Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds. London: Springer; 2014. p. 79–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Archives of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Newly Discovered Layer In Earth’s Mantle Can Affect Surface Dwellers Too [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Planning and Flexibility Are Key to Effectively Deploying Broadband Conduit through Federal Highway Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jun. Report No.: GAO-12-687R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shearer J. Application of the recovery model in clinical practice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. For Takeout, A Tasty Oasis At a Mall. New York Times. 2008 Mar 23;NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Archives of Medicine
AbbreviationInt. Arch. Med.
ISSN (print)1755-7682
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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