How to format your references using the Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Althorpe SC (2010) Chemistry. Setting the trap for reactive resonances. Science 327(5972):1460–1461.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seibel BA, Dierssen HM (2009) Ocean science. Animal function at the heart (and gut) of oceanography. Science 323(5912):343–344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pahwa S, Scoglio C, Scala A (2014) Abruptness of cascade failures in power grids. Sci. Rep. 4:3694.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pica P, Lemer C, Izard V, Dehaene S (2004) Exact and approximate arithmetic in an Amazonian indigene group. Science 306(5695):499–503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wassenaar TM (2011) Bacteria (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Gjedrem T ed. (2005) Selection and Breeding Programs in Aquaculture (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht).
A chapter in an edited book
Carey N (2011) On a Class of Locally Symmetric Sequences: The Right Infinite Word Λ θ. Agon C, Andreatta M, Assayag G, Amiot E, Bresson J, Mandereau J, eds. Mathematics and Computation in Music: Third International Conference, MCM 2011, Paris, France, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 42–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interfaces.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) The strangest and biggest things in space. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Heroin Hotline (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fadamin A (2017) Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemistry of the Ruthenium Schiff Base Complex [(Saloph)Ru(NO)Cl]. Doctoral dissertation. (Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2005) Fun if by Land and Fun if by Sea. New York Times (August 21).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Althorpe 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Althorpe 2010, Seibel and Dierssen 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seibel and Dierssen 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Pica et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterfaces
AbbreviationInterfaces (Providence)
ISSN (print)0092-2102
ISSN (online)1526-551X
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles