How to format your references using the Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearse JS (2006) Ecological role of purple sea urchins. Science 314(5801):940–941.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meldrum DR, Holl MR (2002) Tech.Sight. Microfluidics. Microscale bioanalytical systems. Science 297(5584):1197–1198.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coussens LM, Zitvogel L, Palucka AK (2013) Neutralizing tumor-promoting chronic inflammation: a magic bullet? Science 339(6117):286–291.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Colombo K, Grill SW, Kimple RJ, Willard FS, Siderovski DP, Gönczy P (2003) Translation of polarity cues into asymmetric spindle positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Science 300(5627):1957–1961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zecchina A, Califano S (2017) The Development of Catalysis (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey).
An edited book
Steinhilber D ed. (2016) Lipoxygenases in Inflammation (Springer International Publishing, Cham).
A chapter in an edited book
Artschwager A, Fischer T, Stellmach D, Yepes R, Weiß M, De Sabbata P, Gessa N, et al. (2009) New Quality of Partnership in the Textile World – Concepts and Technologies. Walter L, Kartsounis GA, Carosio S, eds. Transforming Clothing Production into a Demand-driven, Knowledge-based, High-tech Industry: The Leapfrog Paradigm. (Springer, London), 141–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interfaces.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Stephen Hawking Claims Aggression Will Be Downfall of Human Race. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Job Training Partnership Act: Youth Participant Characteristics, Services, and Outcomes (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sexton SM (2017) Progress Toward Analytic Predictions of Supersonic Hydrocarbon-Air Combustion: Computation of Ignition Times and Supersonic Mixing Layers. Doctoral dissertation. (University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Syndergaard Brings the Heat, and the Mets’ Bats End Their Chilly Start. New York Times (April 10).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pearse 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Meldrum and Holl 2002, Pearse 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meldrum and Holl 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Colombo et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterfaces
AbbreviationInterfaces (Providence)
ISSN (print)0092-2102
ISSN (online)1526-551X
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

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