How to format your references using the Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huisman J (2010) Comment on “Patterns of diversity in marine phytoplankton.” Science 329(5991):512; author reply 512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turner DB, Nelson KA (2010) Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells. Nature 466(7310):1089–1092.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kryazhimskiy S, Draghi JA, Plotkin JB (2011) Evolution. In evolution, the sum is less than its parts. Science 332(6034):1160–1161.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Enache DI, Edwards JK, Landon P, Solsona-Espriu B, Carley AF, Herzing AA, Watanabe M, Kiely CJ, Knight DW, Hutchings GJ (2006) Solvent-free oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes using Au-Pd/TiO2 catalysts. Science 311(5759):362–365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chance DM (2008) Essays in Derivatives (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Pettersson P, Yi W eds. (2005) Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems: Third International Conference, FORMATS 2005, Uppsala, Sweden, September 26-28, 2005. Proceedings (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas DSK, Ertuˆgay K, Kemec¸ S (2007) The Role of Geographic Information Systems/Remote Sensing in Disaster Management. Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR, eds. Handbook of Disaster Research. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. (Springer, New York, NY), 83–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interfaces.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) “Rivers In The Sky” Could Cause Some Species To Go Extinct. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope: Knowledge-Based Acquisition Approach Key to Addressing Program Challenges (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren SM (2015) The leadership process: An analysis of follower influence on leader behavior in hospital organizations. Doctoral dissertation. (Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J (2017) One-Celled Hunter With Impressive Weapon. New York Times (March 31).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huisman 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Huisman 2010, Turner and Nelson 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turner and Nelson 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Enache et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterfaces
AbbreviationInterfaces (Providence)
ISSN (print)0092-2102
ISSN (online)1526-551X
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

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