How to format your references using the Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young LJ (2009) Being human: love: neuroscience reveals all. Nature 457(7226):148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Devery JJ 3rd, Stephenson CRJ (2015) Catalysis: dual catalysis at the flick of a switch. Nature 519(7541):42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson ZL, Cheong CG, Lee SY (2012) Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4 Å. Nature 483(7390):489–493.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Maillet F, Poinsot V, André O, Puech-Pagès V, Haouy A, Gueunier M, Cromer L, et al. (2011) Fungal lipochitooligosaccharide symbiotic signals in arbuscular mycorrhiza. Nature 469(7328):58–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jenkinson J, Hyde T, Ahmad S (2008) Building Blocks for Learning: Occupational Therapy Approaches (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom).
An edited book
Barbosa-Cánovas GV (2005) Food Powders: Physical Properties, Processing, and Functionality Ortega-Rivas E, Juliano P, Yan H, eds. (Springer US, Boston, MA).
A chapter in an edited book
Bruce N, Kim TY, Lee HJ (2012) Data Link Layer’ Security Analysis for Wireless Sensor Networks. Kim TH, Ko DS, Vasilakos T, Stoica A, Abawajy J, eds. Computer Applications for Communication, Networking, and Digital Contents: International Conferences, FGCN and DCA 2012, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2012, Gangneug, Korea, December 16-19, 2012. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interfaces.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) FDA Grants Approval for New Robotic Surgical Aid. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Justice ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer-Kinlaw D (2012) Anxious journeys: Past, present, and construction of identity in American travel writing. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) Ideology Seems to Doom Cabinet Contender. New York Times (December 17).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Young 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Devery and Stephenson 2015, Young 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Devery and Stephenson 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Maillet et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterfaces
AbbreviationInterfaces (Providence)
ISSN (print)0092-2102
ISSN (online)1526-551X
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

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