How to format your references using the Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hartzell HC (2008) Physiology. CaCl-ing channels get the last laugh. Science 322(5901):534–535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Livneh U, Zador A (2014) Sensory systems: Sound processing takes motor control. Nature 513(7517):180–181.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoder BL, Bisson R, Beck RD (2010) Steric effects in the chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on Ni(100). Science 329(5991):553–556.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cury PM, Boyd IL, Bonhommeau S, Anker-Nilssen T, Crawford RJM, Furness RW, Mills JA, et al. (2011) Global seabird response to forage fish depletion--one-third for the birds. Science 334(6063):1703–1706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bleistein S (2017) Rapid Organizational Change (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
Cataldo F, Ros TD eds. (2008) Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacological Potential of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht).
A chapter in an edited book
Feng Q, Zhao W, Yu X, Shi Y (2016) Exploration of Integrated Course Project Mode of the Internet of Things Engineering Based on the Relevance Theory. Che W, Han Q, Wang H, Jing W, Peng S, Lin J, Sun G, Song X, Song H, Lu Z, eds. Social Computing: Second International Conference of Young Computer Scientists, Engineers and Educators, ICYCSEE 2016, Harbin, China, August 20-22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Communications in Computer and Information Science. (Springer, Singapore), 26–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interfaces.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Please Stop Electrocuting Your Brains At Home, Say Neuroscientists. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) National Highway System: Refinements Would Strengthen the System (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ochoa-Bontemps RS (2012) Rebuilding the Broken Mirror: An Imaginal Approach to the Multicultural Self. Doctoral dissertation. (Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Five Years Later, A Different Outcome. New York Times (October 5).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hartzell 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hartzell 2008, Livneh and Zador 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Livneh and Zador 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cury et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterfaces
AbbreviationInterfaces (Providence)
ISSN (print)0092-2102
ISSN (online)1526-551X
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

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