How to format your references using the Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elderfield H (2002) Climate change. Carbonate mysteries. Science 296(5573):1618–1621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liemert A, Kienle A (2013) Exact and efficient solution of the radiative transport equation for the semi-infinite medium. Sci. Rep. 3:2018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dominguez G, Wilkins G, Thiemens MH (2011) The Soret effect and isotopic fractionation in high-temperature silicate melts. Nature 473(7345):70–73.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Benabid F, Knight JC, Antonopoulos G, Russell PSJ (2002) Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Science 298(5592):399–402.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yanni SB (2015) Translational ADMET for Drug Therapy (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Brunner RD (2010) Adaptive Governance and Climate Change Lynch AH, ed. (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA).
A chapter in an edited book
Mizumura K, Murase S (2015) Role of Nerve Growth Factor in Pain. Schaible HG, ed. Pain Control. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 57–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interfaces.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Global Warming Increases New York Flooding Danger 20-Fold. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Student Loans: Effect of Including Certain Types of Loans in Calculating Schools’ Default Rates (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ruettgers MM (2013) A Content Analysis to Investigate the Evidence of 21st Century Knowledge and Skills within Elementary Teacher Education Programs in the United States. Doctoral dissertation. (Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu W, Remnick N (2015) City Requires Tower Checks; Outbreak Toll Climbs to 10. New York Times (August 7).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elderfield 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Elderfield 2002, Liemert and Kienle 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liemert and Kienle 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Benabid et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterfaces
AbbreviationInterfaces (Providence)
ISSN (print)0092-2102
ISSN (online)1526-551X
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles