How to format your references using the Interface Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interface Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith A. 2002 Screening for drug discovery: the leading question. Nature 418, 453–459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khoury MJ, Ioannidis JPA. 2014 Medicine. Big data meets public health. Science 346, 1054–1055.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lintunen A, Hölttä T, Kulmala M. 2013 Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress. Sci. Rep. 3, 2031.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
van Oijen AM, Blainey PC, Crampton DJ, Richardson CC, Ellenberger T, Xie XS. 2003 Single-molecule kinetics of lambda exonuclease reveal base dependence and dynamic disorder. Science 301, 1235–1238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mathian H, Sanders L. 2014 Spatio-Temporal Approaches. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Constanda C, Harris PJ, editors. 2011 Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects. 1st edn. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
May WE et al. 2011 Analytical Chemistry. In Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing (eds H Czichos, T Saito, L Smith), pp. 145–203. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interface Focus.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016 Increase In Gun Deaths Linked To ‘Stand Your Ground’ Law In Florida. IFLScience. See (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975 Administration of the Science Education Project ‘Man: A Course of Study’(MACOS).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hao S. 2013 An Introduction to Discrete Minimal Surfaces via the Enneper Surface. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. 2017 A Last Wish From Albee: Destroy Work Left Undone. New York Times, 4 July. , C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInterface Focus
AbbreviationInterface Focus
ISSN (print)2042-8898
ISSN (online)2042-8901
Biomedical Engineering

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