How to format your references using the Interface Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interface Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bollinger JJ. 2011 Metrology: filtering noise with a quantum probe. Nature 473, 39–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyerly AD, Faden RR. 2007 Embryonic stem cells. Willingness to donate frozen embryos for stem cell research. Science 317, 46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pielke R Jr, Wigley T, Green C. 2008 Dangerous assumptions. Nature 452, 531–532.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cissé M et al. 2011 Reversing EphB2 depletion rescues cognitive functions in Alzheimer model. Nature 469, 47–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore LA. 2010 Physical Properties of Macromolecules. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yin X, Yuan L, editors. 2012 Phytoremediation and Biofortification: Two Sides of One Coin. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Assadi F, Sharbaf FG. 2016 Pharmacokinetics of CRRT. In Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Principles and Practice (ed F Ghane Sharbaf), pp. 99–120. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interface Focus.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2017 Ancient Monkey Blood Found Fossilized In Amber. IFLScience. See (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992 Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA Should Delay Awarding Some Construction Contracts.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Han B. 2008 Mechanistic Consequences of Cardiac Oxidative Stress. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S. 2016 Make ‘Em Laugh. New York Times, 19 January. , MM38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInterface Focus
AbbreviationInterface Focus
ISSN (print)2042-8898
ISSN (online)2042-8901
Biomedical Engineering

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