How to format your references using the Interface Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interface Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldin DS. 2000 Contributions to the u.s. Space program. Science 288, 2131c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flint J, Munafò M. 2013 Genetics. Herit-ability. Science 340, 1416–1417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mosey NJ, Müser MH, Woo TK. 2005 Molecular mechanisms for the functionality of lubricant additives. Science 307, 1612–1615.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang Z, Zhang J, Kwong G, Li J, Fan Z, Deng X, Tang G. 2013 All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures: geometrical properties, current rectification, and current amplification. Sci. Rep. 3, 2575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akivis MA, Goldberg VV. 1996 Conformal Differential Geometry and Its Generalizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ding C, Shao Z, Zheng R, editors. 2010 Network and Parallel Computing: IFIP International Conference, NPC 2010, Zhengzhou, China, September 13-15, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hays E. 2005 A Search for TeV Emission from X-Ray Selected AGN with Milagro. In Multiwavelength Approach to Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: A Second Workshop on the Nature of the High-Energy Unidentified Sources (eds KS Cheng, GE Romero), pp. 43–52. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interface Focus.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016 What’s The Story Behind These Weird Rock Spheres Found In Siberia? IFLScience. See (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008 Head Start: A More Comprehensive Risk Management Strategy and Data Improvements Could Further Strengthen Program Oversight.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sokoya K. 2014 A Historical Analysis of the Contributions of the Black Power Movement to Higher Education: 1960 – 1980. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. 2017 Questions of Judgment Engulf Barclays’ Chief. New York Times, 12 May. , B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInterface Focus
AbbreviationInterface Focus
ISSN (print)2042-8898
ISSN (online)2042-8901
Biomedical Engineering

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