How to format your references using the Interface Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interface Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Priem J. 2013 Scholarship: Beyond the paper. Nature 495, 437–440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rolett B, Diamond J. 2004 Environmental predictors of pre-European deforestation on Pacific islands. Nature 431, 443–446.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wall DH, Nielsen UN, Six J. 2015 Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 528, 69–76.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mikosch J, Trippel S, Eichhorn C, Otto R, Lourderaj U, Zhang JX, Hase WL, Weidemüller M, Wester R. 2008 Imaging nucleophilic substitution dynamics. Science 319, 183–186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schiek B, Rolfes I, Siweris H-J. 2005 Noise in High-Frequency Circuits and Oscillators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Benth FE, Kholodnyi VA, Laurence P, editors. 2014 Quantitative Energy Finance: Modeling, Pricing, and Hedging in Energy and Commodity Markets. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Quinton SR. 2012 Rethinking Learning in the 21st Century. In Higher Education Management and Operational Research: Demonstrating New Practices and Metaphors (eds G Bell, J Warwick, P Galbraith), pp. 65–77. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interface Focus.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015 First Video Of Genet Spotted Riding A Black Rhino. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011 Opportunities to Reduce Potential Duplication in Federal Teacher Quality Programs.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez HM. 2017 DiaBeaThis Healthcare Clinic Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2017 They Sing and Dance, but This Isn’t “La La Land’. New York Times, 16 February. , C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInterface Focus
AbbreviationInterface Focus
ISSN (print)2042-8898
ISSN (online)2042-8901
Biomedical Engineering

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