How to format your references using the Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Irion, TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome “Aperture Envy,” Science. 289 (2000) 32–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.M. Pedraza, J. Paulsson, Effects of molecular memory and bursting on fluctuations in gene expression, Science. 319 (2008) 339–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.G. Vander Heiden, L.C. Cantley, C.B. Thompson, Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation, Science. 324 (2009) 1029–1033.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.N. Baliki, P.C. Chang, A.T. Baria, M.V. Centeno, A.V. Apkarian, Resting-sate functional reorganization of the rat limbic system following neuropathic injury, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Lehr, P. Ron, Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
R.J. Johnston, J. Rolfe, R.S. Rosenberger, R. Brouwer, eds., Benefit Transfer of Environmental and Resource Values: A Guide for Researchers and Practitioners, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Muller-Parker, C.F. D’Elia, C.B. Cook, Interactions Between Corals and Their Symbiotic Algae, in: C. Birkeland (Ed.), Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 99–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Link Found Between Gut Bacteria And Depression, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Aviation: Bankruptcy and Pension Problems Are Symptoms of Underlying Structural Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.W. Allen, Popular Culture and War in the Vietnam Era, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Itzkoff, M. Bai, J. Goldstein, E. Spitznagel, J. Hodgman, A. Leff, R. Rushfield, G. Veis, E. Glaser, L. Skurnick, M. Hanel, M. Newton, M. Silcoff, E. Zimmerman, J. Kelly, W. Shortz, T. Cowe, D. Carroll, The One-Page Magazine, New York Times. (2012) MM11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInterdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management
AbbreviationInterdiscip. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)2214-7519
ScopeClinical Neurology

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