How to format your references using the Intensive Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martin A (2012) Oceans.The seasonal smorgasbord of the seas. Science 337:46–47
A journal article with 2 authors
Frisch RL, Rosenberg SM (2011) Microbiology. Antibiotic resistance, not shaken or stirred. Science 333:1713–1714
A journal article with 3 authors
Sneddon JB, Borowiak M, Melton DA (2012) Self-renewal of embryonic-stem-cell-derived progenitors by organ-matched mesenchyme. Nature 491:765–768
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gergen B, Nienhaus H, Weinberg WH, McFarland EW (2001) Chemically induced electronic excitations at metal surfaces. Science 294:2521–2523

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gowler DB (2013) James Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Kapoor D (2011) Critical Perspectives on Neoliberal Globalization, Development and Education in Africa and Asia. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Syme D, Granicz A, Cisternino A (2012) Introducing Imperative Programming. In: Granicz A, Cisternino A (eds) Expert F# 3.0. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 49–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive Care Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Ethiopia Now Has A Space Program. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Air Traffic Control: Weak Computer Security Practices Jeopardize Flight Safety. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sosa Tzec O (2017) Delightful Interactive Systems: A Rhetorical Examination. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Saad H (2017) Thousands Evacuated From Besieged Syrian Towns. New York Times A7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive Care Medicine
AbbreviationIntensive Care Med.
ISSN (print)0342-4642
ISSN (online)1432-1238
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Other styles