How to format your references using the Intensive Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alberts B (2003) DNA replication and recombination. Nature 421:431–435
A journal article with 2 authors
Nandagopal N, Elowitz MB (2011) Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits. Science 333:1244–1248
A journal article with 3 authors
Willner AE, Wang J, Huang H (2012) Applied physics. A different angle on light communications. Science 337:655–656
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dadosh T, Gordin Y, Krahne R, et al (2005) Measurement of the conductance of single conjugated molecules. Nature 436:677–680

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tibergien M, Pomering R (2011) Practice Made (More) Perfect. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Nagy ZP, Varghese AC, Agarwal A (2012) Practical Manual of In Vitro Fertilization: Advanced Methods and Novel Devices. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Prieto PA, Prieto PA, Hall CAS (2013) Calculating the Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) for Spain’s Solar Photovoltaic Energy. In: Hall CAS (ed) Spain’s Photovoltaic Revolution: The Energy Return on Investment. Springer, New York, NY, pp 39–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive Care Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Greener But Not Cleaner? How Trees Can Worsen Urban Air Pollution. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valadez I (2010) A psycho-education peer support group for homeless youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nagourney A (2014) ‘Everyone Has a Game Plan Until You Punch them in the Mouth.’ New York Times MM20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive Care Medicine
AbbreviationIntensive Care Med.
ISSN (print)0342-4642
ISSN (online)1432-1238
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Other styles